On the one hand, you're hurting. Really hurting.
The should-I-take-it-or-shouldn't-I is a choice many of us will have to make.
In 2013, U.S. doctors wrote nearly 207 million prescriptions for opioid painkillers, according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse
, to treat everything from cancer and post-surgical pain to bone fractures and headaches.
Even once people have medications in hand, many don't finish their prescriptions. The medical journal JAMA Surgery recently published
a review of six studies that included 810 patients, all of whom had surgery. The studies found 67% to 92% of patients reported having unused opioids. Patients said they stopped taking them because their pain was under control, or because they experienced adverse effects. Still, the analysis noted that few patients planned to dispose of the drugs
as the Food and Drug Administration recommends -- and that can lead to dangerous non-medical use.
So, here are questions you should ask your doctor -- and yourself -- before saying yes or no to your doctor's offer of a prescription for opioid painkillers.
Am I at a high risk for becoming addicted to these painkillers?
You're more prone to becoming addicted to prescription painkillers if you or someone in your family has a history of substance abuse, and that includes legal and illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco, according to Dr. Jane Ballantyne, professor of anesthesiology and pain medicine at the University of Washington and president of Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing.
You're also at a higher risk for addiction if you have a history of a psychiatric disease, including depression or anxiety, she added.
Will something else help my pain?
Experts generally agree that opioid painkillers are a good choice in certain situations, such as if you're suffering from cancer pain or you've just had major surgery.
But on the other end of the spectrum, they say these drugs are bad choices for chronic pain, such as headaches or back pain.
First, chronic pain needs a long-term solution, and your chances of becoming dependent on opioids goes up the longer you take them.
"After 12 weeks, you will have severe withdrawal attacks if you stop taking these drugs," said Dr. Gary Franklin, a research professor at the University of Washington and medical director of the Washington Department of Labor and Industries.
Second, he said, opioids aren't very effective in these situations.
"There's no evidence that these drugs actually help for these kinds of conditions, and it may actually make the pain even worse," he said.
He said there are better alternatives to opioids
, such as Advil and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories and other treatments
such as physical therapy.
How long will I be taking these drugs?
Opioids can be effective shorter-term, but even then, you want to get a very clear definition from your doctor about how long he or she expects you to be on them.
Oftentimes, an opioid prescription will start when something sudden happens: someone throws their back out moving furniture, for example, or they injure themselves playing sports.
In these types of acute situations, the CDC recommends
prescribing the drugs for just a matter of days.
"Three days or less will often be sufficient; more than seven days will rarely be needed," the guidelines state.
But that's not how many doctors prescribe these drugs.
"Many doctors are giving prescriptions for 15 to 30 days; that's way more than what people need," Franklin said.
Dr. W. Michael Hooten, a professor of anesthesiology in the division of pain medicine at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, said he doesn't prescribe opioids at all in these types of acute situations, such as when people throw out their backs.
He cites a study showing that 27% of patients
who were prescribed the drugs on a short-term basis ended up taking them for considerably longer.
"These people weren't meant to be long-term users, but they ended up becoming long-term users," he said. "And these aren't bad people; they're our neighbors. They're people we know and like."
Are you prescribing me the lowest possible dosage?
The CDC guidelines emphasize that doctors should "start low and go slow."
What's the plan to taper me off?
Hooten suggests you ask your doctor for his or her plan if you do become dependent on these drugs.
"Also ask if they know how to taper someone off of drugs," he added.
The Veterans Administration has more information
(PDF) about tapering off of opioid drugs.