New York faces increasing threats from hurricanes, storms and flooding. A new $335 million project is being implemented to disaster-proof the metropolis.
The scheme emerged from a Rebuild by Design competition, which also proposed solutions for the Hoboken area, making an asset of flood water.
One popular idea for resilience in areas affected by rising waters is artificial islands, as with this concept from architect Vincent Callebaut.
Dutch architect Koen Olthuis is at the forefront of these efforts and his designs are widely used in his homeland.
Olthuis hopes to address poverty through his designs, and plans floating resources for slums in the Maldives.
Shigeru Ban has won prizes for his low cost emergency relief designs, including paper partitions in the aftermath of the Fukushima disaster.
Paper-based structures have been versatile enough to deliver churches classrooms, as seen here in Chengdu, China.
Boston could be underwater by 2100, so 'Living with water' competition seeks to re-imagine the city for a new age.
This 'tsunami proof house' from Designs Northwest Architects creates allows flood water in and out without causing serious damage.