September 1955 - The first known lesbian rights organization in the United States forms in San Francisco. Daughters of Bilitis (DOB). They host private social functions, fearing police raids, threats of violence and discrimination in bars and clubs.
July 1961 -
Illinois becomes the first state to decriminalize homosexuality
by repealing their sodomy laws.
September 11, 1961 -
The first US televised documentary about homosexuality
airs on a local station in California.
June 28, 1969 -
Police raid the Stonewall Inn in New York City
. Protests and demonstrations begin, and it later becomes known as the impetus for the gay civil rights movement in the United States.
1969 - The "Los Angeles Advocate," founded in 1967,
is renamed "The Advocate." It is considered the oldest continuing LGBT publication that began as a newsletter published by the activist group Personal Rights in Defense and Education (PRIDE).
The Pink Triangle
becomes a symbol of gay pride after being used during World War II
as a symbol of homosexuality, perversion and deviance.
June 28, 1970 -
Community members in New York City march through the local streets to recognize the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots. This event is named Christopher Street Liberation Day
, and is now considered the first gay pride parade.
Lambda Legal becomes the first legal organization established to fight for the equal rights of gays and lesbians. Lambda also becomes their own first client after being denied non-profit status; the New York Supreme Court eventually rules that Lambda Legal can exist as a non-profit.
January 1, 1973 -
Maryland becomes the first state to statutorily ban same-sex marriage
March 26, 1973 -
First meeting of "Parents and Friends of Gays,"
which goes national as Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) in 1982.
December 15, 1973 -
By a vote of 5,854 to 3,810, the American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality
from its list of mental disorders in the DSM-II Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
1974 - Elaine Noble is the first openly gay candidate elected
to a state office when she is elected to the Massachusetts State legislature.
January 14, 1975 -
The first federal gay rights bill
is introduced to address discrimination based on sexual orientation. The bill later goes to the Judiciary Committee but is never brought for consideration.
March 1975 -
Technical Sergeant Leonard P. Matlovich reveals his sexual orientation to his commanding officer and is forcibly discharged from the Air Force six months later. Matlovich is a Vietnam War
veteran and was awarded both the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star. In 1980, the Court of Appeals rules that the dismissal was improper. Matlovich is awarded his back pay and a retroactive promotion. Upon his death, the inscription on his gravestone read: ''When I was in the military they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one.''
After undergoing gender reassignment surgery in 1975, ophthalmologist and professional tennis player Renee Richards is banned from competing in the women's US Open
because of a "women-born-women" rule. Richards challenges the decision and in 1977, the New York Supreme Court rules in her favor. Richards competes in the 1977 US Open but is defeated in the first round by Virginia Wade.
May 24, 1976 - "Tales of the City," by Armistead Maupin
appears in the San Francisco Chronicle. It is among the first fiction works to address a disease that initially affected gay men (it would later be identified as AIDS
), and feature many minority characters and homosexual relationships.
1977-1981 - Billy Crystal plays one of the first openly gay characters in a recurring role on a prime time television show in "Soap."
January 9, 1978 -
Harvey Milk is inaugurated as San Francisco city supervisor, and is the first openly gay man to be elected to a political office in California.
Inspired by Harvey Milk to develop a symbol of pride and hope for the LGBT community, Gilbert Baker designs and stitches together the first rainbow flag.
November 27, 1978 -
Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone are murdered by Dan White, who had recently resigned from his San Francisco board position and wanted Moscone to reappoint him. White later serves just over five years in prison for voluntary manslaughter.
October 14, 1979 -
The first National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights
takes place. It draws an estimated 75,000 to 125,000 individuals marching for LGBT rights.
March 2, 1982 - Wisconsin becomes the first state to outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation.
1983 - Lambda Legal wins People v. West 12 Tenants Corp., the first HIV/AIDS discrimination lawsuit.
December 1, 1988 -
The World Health Organization holds the first World AIDS Day
in order to raise awareness.
November 30, 1993 -
President Bill Clinton signs a military policy
directive that prohibits openly gay and lesbian Americans from serving in the military, but also prohibits the harassment of "closeted" homosexuals. The policy is known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell."
The movie "Philadelphia," depicting a closeted gay man dying of AIDS, wins two Academy Awards
November 1995 -
The Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act
goes into effect as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The law allows a judge to impose harsher sentences if there is evidence showing that a victim was selected because of the "actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person."
September 21, 1996 -
President Bill Clinton signs the Defense of Marriage Act,
banning federal recognition of same-sex marriage and defining marriage as "a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife."
December 3, 1996 - Hawaii's Judge Chang rules that the state does not have a legal right to deprive same-sex couples of the right to marry
, making Hawaii the first state to recognize that gay and lesbian couples are entitled to the same privileges as heterosexual married couples.
April 1997 -
Comedian Ellen DeGeneres
comes out as a lesbian on the cover Time magazine, stating, "Yep, I'm Gay."
April 30, 1997 - Ellen DeGeneres' character, Ellen Morgan on her self-titled TV series "Ellen," becomes the first leading character to come out on a prime time network television show.
April 1, 1998 -
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s widow, Coretta Scott King
asks the civil rights community to help in the effort to extinguish homophobia.
October 6-7, 1998 -
Matthew Shepard is tied to a fence, beaten and left to die near Laramie, Wyoming. He is eventually found by a cyclist, who initially mistakes him for a scarecrow.
October 9, 1998 - Russell Henderson and Aaron McKinney from Laramie, Wyoming, make their first court appearance after being arrested for the attempted murder of Matthew Shepard. Eventually, they each receive two life sentences for killing Shepard.
October 12, 1998 - Matthew Shepard dies from his injuries sustained in the beating.
April 26, 2000 - Vermont being comes the first state to legalize civil-unions between same-sex couples.
May 17, 2004 - The first legal same-sex marriage in the United States occurs in Massachusetts.
September 6, 2005 -
The California legislature becomes the first to pass a bill allowing marriage between same-sex couples. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
vetoes the bill.
December 9, 2005 -
"Brokeback Mountain" is released to limited audiences in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. The major motion picture, directed by Ang Lee, focuses on a love story between two men that stretches over decades, and survives in a time and place in which the two men's feelings for each other were utterly taboo. The film stars Jake Gyllenhaal and Heath Ledger, and goes on to win several Golden Globe Awards
and Academy Awards.
October 25, 2006 -
The New Jersey Supreme Court
rules that state lawmakers must provide the rights and benefits of marriage to gay and lesbian couples.
May 15, 2008 - The California Supreme Court rules in re: Marriage Cases that limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples is unconstitutional.
November 4, 2008 - Voters approve Proposition 8 in California, which makes same-sex marriage illegal.
February 22, 2009 - Actor Sean Penn wins an Oscar for his role as Harvey Milk in the film, "Milk." The film also won for "Best Original Screenplay."
August 12, 2009 -
Harvey Milk is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama
October 28, 2009 -
President Barack Obama signs the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
August 4, 2010 - Proposition 8 is found unconstitutional by a federal judge.
September 20, 2011 - "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" is repealed, ending a ban on gay men and lesbians from serving openly in the military.
May 9, 2012 -
In an ABC interview,
Barack Obama becomes the first sitting US president to publicly support the freedom for LGBT couples to marry.
September 4, 2012 - The Democratic Party becomes the first major US political party in history to publicly support same-sex marriage on a national platform at the Democratic National Convention.
November 6, 2012 -
Tammy Baldwin becomes the first openly gay politician and the first Wisconsin woman, elected to the US Senate.
June 26, 2013 -
In United States v. Windsor
, the US Supreme Court
strikes down section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act, ruling that legally married same-sex couples are entitled to federal benefits. The high court also dismisses a case involving California's proposition 8.
October 6, 2014 - The United States Supreme Court denies review in five different marriage cases, allowing lower court rulings to stand, and therefore allowing same-sex couples to marry in Utah, Oklahoma, Virginia, Indiana and Wisconsin. The decision opens the door for the right to marry in Colorado, Kansas, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia and Wyoming.
April 24, 2015 -
In a televised interview with ABC's Diane Sawyer, US Olympic
gold medal winner Bruce Jenner says, "Yes, for all intents and purposes, I'm a woman."
Jenner later reveals that she is now Caitlyn Jenner
and will live as a woman.
April 28, 2015 -
The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments on the question of the freedom to marry in Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio and Michigan. The decision may bring a national resolution on the issue of same-sex marriage.
June 26, 2015 -
The Supreme Court rules that states cannot ban same-sex marriage. The 5-4 ruling had Justice Anthony Kennedy
writing for the majority with the four liberal justices. Each of the four conservative justices writes their own dissent.
July 27, 2015 -
Boy Scouts of America President Robert Gates
announces "the national executive board ratified a resolution removing the national restriction on openly gay leaders and employees."
May 17, 2016 -
The Senate confirms Eric Fanning to be secretary of the Army, making him the first openly gay secretary of a US military branch. Fanning previously served as Defense Secretary Ash Carter's chief of staff, and also served as undersecretary of the Air Force and deputy undersecretary of the Navy.
June 24, 2016 - President Barack Obama announces the designation of the first national monument to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights.
The Stonewall National Monument
will encompass Christopher Park, the Stonewall Inn and the surrounding streets and sidewalks that were the sites of the 1969 Stonewall uprising.
June 30, 2016 -
Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announces that the Pentagon is lifting the ban on transgender people serving openly in the US military.
The decision removes one of the last remaining barriers to LGBT participation in the armed forces.
August 5-21, 2016 -
A record number of out athletes compete in the summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Human Rights Campaign estimates that there are at least 41 openly lesbian, gay and bisexual Olympians -- up from 23 that participated in London 2012 -- though Outsports.com puts that number much higher at 49.
November 9, 2016 - Kate Brown is sworn in as governor of Oregon, a day after she was officially elected to the office. Brown becomes the highest-ranking LGBT person elected to office in the United States. Brown took over the governorship in February 2016 (without an election), after Democrat John Kitzhaber resigned amidst a criminal investigation.