Skip to main content
Part of complete coverage on
 

Will Hollywood fix its pay bias against women?

By Timothy A. Judge
updated 1:35 PM EST, Fri February 28, 2014
Matthew McConaughey accepts the best actor Oscar on Sunday, March 2, for his role in the film "Dallas Buyers Club." Find out which legends took home Oscars before McConaughey -- from German actor Emil Jannings in 1929 to three-time winner Daniel Day-Lewis in 2013: Matthew McConaughey accepts the best actor Oscar on Sunday, March 2, for his role in the film "Dallas Buyers Club." Find out which legends took home Oscars before McConaughey -- from German actor Emil Jannings in 1929 to three-time winner Daniel Day-Lewis in 2013:
HIDE CAPTION
A history of Oscar-winning best actors
Emil Jannings (1929)
Warner Baxter (1930)
George Arliss (1930)
Lionel Barrymore (1931)
Wallace Beery (1932)
Fredric March (1932)
Charles Laughton (1934)
Clark Gable (1935)
Victor McLaglen (1936)
Paul Muni (1937)
Spencer Tracy (1938)
Spencer Tracy (1939)
Robert Donat (1940)
James Stewart (1941)
Gary Cooper (1942)
James Cagney (1943)
Paul Lukas (1944)
Bing Crosby (1945)
Ray Milland (1946)
Fredric March (1947)
Ronald Colman (1948)
Laurence Olivier (1949)
Broderick Crawford (1950)
José Ferrer (1951)
Humphrey Bogart (1952)
Gary Cooper (1953)
William Holden (1954)
Marlon Brando (1955)
Ernest Borgnine (1956)
Yul Brynner (1957)
Alec Guinness (1958)
David Niven (1959)
Charlton Heston (1960)
Burt Lancaster (1961)
Maximilian Schell (1962)
Gregory Peck (1963)
Sidney Poitier (1964)
Rex Harrison (1965)
Lee Marvin (1966)
Paul Scofield (1967)
Rod Steiger (1968)
Cliff Robertson (1969)
John Wayne (1970)
George C. Scott (1971)
Gene Hackman (1972)
Marlon Brando (1973)
Jack Lemmon (1974)
Art Carney (1975)
Jack Nicholson (1976)
Peter Finch (1977)
Richard Dreyfuss (1978)
Jon Voight (1979)
Dustin Hoffman (1980)
Robert De Niro (1981)
Henry Fonda (1982)
Ben Kingsley (1983)
Robert Duvall (1984)
F. Murray Abraham (1985)
William Hurt (1986)
Paul Newman (1987)
Michael Douglas (1988)
Dustin Hoffman (1989)
Daniel Day-Lewis (1990)
Jeremy Irons (1991)
Anthony Hopkins (1992)
Al Pacino (1993)
Tom Hanks (1994)
Tom Hanks (1995)
Nicolas Cage (1996)
Geoffrey Rush (1997)
Jack Nicholson (1998)
Roberto Benigni (1999)
Kevin Spacey (2000)
Russell Crowe (2001)
Denzel Washington (2002)
Adrien Brody (2003)
Sean Penn (2004)
Jamie Foxx (2005)
Philip Seymour Hoffman (2006)
Forest Whitaker (2007)
Daniel Day-Lewis (2008)
Sean Penn (2009)
Jeff Bridges (2010)
Colin Firth (2011)
Jean Dujardin (2012)
Daniel Day-Lewis (2013)
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
>
>>
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Timothy Judge: Hollywood actors and actresses make about the same until they age
  • Judge: Actresses' pay peaks at about age 34 whereas actors pay peaks around 51
  • He says we can blame Hollywood, but it's also that our society is obsessed with beauty
  • Judge: Both genders are biased against less attractive women and older people

Editor's note: Timothy A. Judge is a professor in the Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame. His research focuses on career success, among other topics.

(CNN) -- Who would you say is more successful: Academy Award nominee Leonardo DiCaprio, or Academy Award nominee Meryl Streep?

In terms of numbers of memorable -- even legendary -- screen roles, it might be difficult to say. And in terms of lasting power, they both have grown in reputation over the years. But in terms of most recent earning for the year 2012-2013, the winner is clear: Leonardo Di Caprio, age 39, earned $39 million in pay while Meryl Streep, age 64, earned only $7 million. (One caveat: Their earnings are also influenced by the box office success of their films.)

Sure, that's just one year and those are just two stars. But if we look across the board, we can't help but come to the same conclusion: There's an unfair pay disparity in Hollywood.

Timothy A. Judge
Timothy A. Judge

As we look forward to this year's Academy Awards show on Sunday night, it's worth taking a moment to reflect on the movie industry and what it tells us about ourselves.

Research that my colleagues Irene de Pater, Brent Scott and I conducted shows that whereas young Hollywood actors and actresses make about the same in yearly earnings, that parity quickly evaporates as they age. According to our study, for actresses, their pay peaks at age 34 and then drops quickly thereafter. For actors, their pay peaks at a much later age -- 51 -- and just as importantly, does not drop after that nearly as severely as it does for actresses.

We measured leading actors and actresses over many years. At age 27, actresses make an average of $3.9 million, compared to $2.6 million for actors. By the age of 51, actors make an average of $5.3 million, more than five times as much as actresses.

Cate Blanchett reacts Sunday, March 2, after winning the best actress Oscar for her role in the film "Blue Jasmine." The first Academy Awards ceremony was held in Los Angeles in May 1929, honoring films and performances from 1927 and 1928. Here is a look back at the best actress winners before Blanchett, listed by the year in which they received their Oscar. Cate Blanchett reacts Sunday, March 2, after winning the best actress Oscar for her role in the film "Blue Jasmine." The first Academy Awards ceremony was held in Los Angeles in May 1929, honoring films and performances from 1927 and 1928. Here is a look back at the best actress winners before Blanchett, listed by the year in which they received their Oscar.
A history of Oscar-winning best actresses
HIDE CAPTION
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
>
>>
A history of Oscar-winning best actresses A history of Oscar-winning best actresses

Why is it that age ravages the earnings of actresses compared to actors?

Some might blame Hollywood movie industry -- a field that is overwhelmingly male dominated. Some might argue that female actresses are more likely to take breaks from acting at the potential peak of their careers, as have Natalie Portman, Emily Blunt and Drew Barrymore. While there probably is some merit to these explanations, I think we need to look closer to home. To borrow from Pogo, I've met the enemy, and he is us.

Let's face it, we're an appearance-based society and despite social progress on many issues, I don't see much evidence that our obsession with appearance has faded over time. Indeed, some have argued that the growth in online communication and social media has only exacerbated the problem.

Some may feel that our obsession with beauty is a problem because it's superficial, it's hard to change, or it isn't related to true intrinsic worth (for example, a job or a mate). Yet we know that we value beauty even though it is hard to justify the value we place on it.

It's more insidious than that. Our beauty obsession particularly gets applied to women (who are more likely to be judged by their appearance than men) and against older individuals (people are rated as less physically attractive as they age). We are, therefore, especially biased against older women.

10 killer facts about the Oscars
One last chance to catch up with Oscar

Tell me about it, some of you more mature women may say.

It's important to remember that this isn't simply about male biases. Those exist, but so do female biases. Both men and women judge others by their appearance, and both genders are more likely to be especially biased against less attractive women and older individuals.

Who's really to blame here? Is it Hollywood, or those of us who consume Hollywood culture? There is plenty of blame to go around. Hollywood, like Washington, both leads and follows society.

In commenting on this disparity, Tina Fey said, in her characteristically satirical way, "There are still great parts in Hollywood for Meryl Streeps over 60." Judging by the current list of Best Actor/Actress nominees, including near-octogenarian Judi Dench, Fey is correct. In fact, some might say the Best Actor/Actress nominees are on the aged side, with none in their 20s, three in their 30s (one woman, two men), four in their 40s (two men, two women), and three older (two women, one man).

But the earnings don't follow, and the roles for older females are generally not as available, we found in our study. Even 83-year-old Clint Eastwood recognizes the problem, commenting, "Roles thin out when (actresses) get to a certain age. ... It's a crime."

The first step toward social change is to recognize the problem. We've got a beauty complex that does us little good and much harm. The sooner we own up to that, the sooner we can defeat that enemy within us.

As we enjoy the glamor of Hollywood at this time of year, all those beautiful people dressed to the nines should remind us: There is a lot more to life than looks. Let's confront our own biases that support this culture, and try harder to value the things that really matter.

Follow us on Twitter @CNNOpinion

Join us on Facebook/CNNOpinion

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Timothy A. Judge.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
updated 3:47 PM EDT, Mon September 15, 2014
LZ Granderson says Congress has rebuked the NFL on domestic violence issue, but why not a federal judge?
updated 12:50 PM EDT, Mon September 15, 2014
Mel Robbins says the only person you can legally hit in the United States is a child. That's wrong.
updated 1:23 PM EDT, Mon September 15, 2014
Eric Liu says seeing many friends fight so hard for same-sex marriage rights made him appreciate marriage.
updated 3:38 PM EDT, Mon September 15, 2014
SEATTLE, WA - SEPTEMBER 04: NFL commissioner Roger Goodell walks the sidelines prior to the game between the Seattle Seahawks and the Green Bay Packers at CenturyLink Field on September 4, 2014 in Seattle, Washington. (Photo by Otto Greule Jr/Getty Images)
Martha Pease says the NFL commissioner shouldn't be judge and jury on player wrongdoing.
updated 5:22 PM EDT, Mon September 15, 2014
It's time for a much needed public reckoning over U.S. use of torture, argues Donald P. Gregg.
updated 12:08 PM EDT, Mon September 15, 2014
Peter Bergen says UK officials know the identity of the man who killed U.S. journalists and a British aid worker.
updated 12:20 PM EDT, Sat September 13, 2014
Joe Torre and Esta Soler say much has been achieved since a landmark anti-violence law was passed.
updated 4:55 PM EDT, Fri September 12, 2014
David Wheeler wonders: If Scotland votes to secede, can America take its place and rejoin England?
updated 6:07 PM EDT, Fri September 12, 2014
Jane Stoever: Society must grapple with a culture in which 1 in 3 teen girls and women suffer partner violence.
updated 4:36 PM EDT, Fri September 12, 2014
World-famous physicist Stephen Hawking recently said the world as we know it could be obliterated instantaneously. Meg Urry says fear not.
updated 6:11 PM EDT, Fri September 12, 2014
Bill Clinton's speech accepting the Democratic nomination for president in 1992 went through 22 drafts. But he always insisted on including a call to service.
updated 6:18 PM EDT, Fri September 12, 2014
Joe Amon asks: What turns a few cases of disease into thousands?
updated 1:21 PM EDT, Thu September 11, 2014
Sally Kohn says bombing ISIS will worsen instability in Iraq and strengthen radical ideology in terrorist groups.
updated 1:30 PM EDT, Thu September 11, 2014
Analysts weigh in on the president's plans for addressing the threat posed by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.
updated 9:27 AM EDT, Thu September 11, 2014
Artist Prune Nourry's project reinterprets the terracotta warriors in an exhibition about gender preference in China.
updated 9:36 AM EDT, Wed September 10, 2014
The Apple Watch is on its way. Jeff Yang asks: Are we ready to embrace wearables technology at last?
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT