Skip to main content

Who still can't sit at America's table

By Stephanie Coontz
updated 7:15 PM EST, Tue February 11, 2014
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Stephanie Coontz: 50 years ago, the House passed Civil Rights Act, making discrimination illegal
  • Women, blacks, other minorities have gained since then, but still suffer from inequality, she says
  • Poverty, lack of social mobility unduly affect blacks, she says, and women's pay lags
  • Coontz: Some have done well, but poor of all races unwelcome at the American prosperity table

Editor's note: Stephanie Coontz teaches at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, and is director of research and public education at the Council on Contemporary Families.

(CNN) -- Fifty years ago this week, the House of Representatives passed the Civil Rights Act, which made it illegal to discriminate against individuals on the basis of race, national origin, religion or gender. We've come a long way since then, according to a report issued last week by the Council on Contemporary Families. Yet troubling inequalities persist.

Gone are the days when segregationists in Congress proudly declared they would resist "social equality" and racial "intermingling" to "the bitter end," and when the head of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission flatly refused to enforce the act's provisions against gender discrimination.

In 1964, fewer than 5% of Americans approved of interracial marriage. Today, 77% do, according to a Gallup poll. In 1970, a majority of Americans still opposed efforts to end gender inequality. By 2010, 97% of Americans supported equal rights for women, according to the Pew Research Center.

Stephanie Coontz
Stephanie Coontz

The number of elected black officials in the country has soared, growing from 103 in 1964 to more than 10,000 today. Since 1990, there have been two African-American secretaries of state, and an African-American president is now in his second term.

Before passage of the Civil Rights Act, fewer than 3% of all lawyers and fewer than 1% of all federal judges were female. Today, women account for almost one-third of attorneys and three of the nine Supreme Court justices. Fifty years ago, women working full-time earned just 59 cents for every dollar their male counterparts made. Today, women workers, as a group, earn 77% of what men earn, as a group. Women run 23 of the Fortune 500 companies, and a woman heads the most powerful financial institution in the country, the Federal Reserve Bank.

Despite these huge improvements, the historical legacy of racial and gender discrimination has not gone away. Although one in 10 black households now earns more than $100,000 a year, the median net worth of black households is 14 times lower than that of white households. The black unemployment rate remains twice that of whites. Black poverty rates are almost three times as high. These ratios have hardly budged over the past 50 years.

Ta-Nehisi Coates, a writer for The Atlantic, recently called attention to a disturbing graph showing that almost one-third of African-Americans born between 1985 and 2000 live in neighborhoods where 30% of the residents are poor, compared with only 1% of whites. Living in areas of such concentrated poverty multiplies the barriers to getting a decent education or job.

And after declining in the 1970s, racial segregation in schools has increased again over the past 30 years, especially in districts that were released from court-ordered desegregation plans. This trend underscores the need for continuing federal oversight and enforcement of equal rights laws.

March on Washington remembered
Civil rights icon and protector reunite
Civil rights hero writes comic book

Women also face ongoing barriers to reaching full equality. Despite the high-profile positions of female executives such as Facebook's Sheryl Sandberg and Yahoo's Melissa Mayer, working-class jobs are as gender-segregated today as they were in 1964. Most women continue to work in traditionally female occupations, which typically pay less than traditionally male jobs requiring comparable skills. Sixty-two percent of minimum-wage workers -- and the majority of poor Americans -- are female.

In the decades since the Civil Rights Act outlawed barefaced discrimination on the basis of race and gender, many particularly talented or fortunate women, blacks, and Hispanics have acquired a degree of wealth, power and social admiration that would have been unimaginable in 1964. But the majority are still handicapped by their historic disadvantages, as well as by racial and gender prejudices that controlled experiments reveal to be stubbornly persistent.

Such prejudices are especially virulent when they interact with the growing income polarization occurring in America today. Commentators continue to blame poverty on the irresponsibility of single mothers and to impugn the sexual mores of women who want insurance coverage for birth control. According to an experiment published in American Sociological Review, white applicants in low-income communities are twice as likely to get a job offer as equally qualified blacks. White applicants just out of prison have as good a chance of being hired as black or Latino applicants with no criminal record!

The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. once imagined a world where "the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood." Had he given the speech a few years later, he would certainly have added daughters to the mix. But as author Ellis Cose has observed, it would be a tragedy if we arrived at that point only to discover that while the wealthiest black, Latino, Asian and white men and women are welcome at the head table, the poor of all races are relegated to eating leftovers in the kitchen.

The recent recession has demoted many Americans of all races to the poverty table. Yet blacks, Latinos and women remain over-represented in that group. The civil rights challenge for the next 50 years will be to find ways to work simultaneously for socioeconomic justice along with racial and gender equity.

Follow us on Twitter @CNNOpinion.

Join us on Facebook/CNNOpinion.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Stephanie Coontz.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
updated 12:50 PM EDT, Tue July 29, 2014
LZ Granderson says the cyber-standing ovation given to Robyn Lawley, an Australian plus-size model who posted unretouched photos, shows how crazy Americans' notions of beauty have become
updated 7:56 AM EDT, Mon July 28, 2014
A crisis like the Gaza conflict or the surge of immigrants can be an opportunity for a lame duck president, writes Julian Zelizer
updated 2:22 PM EDT, Sat July 26, 2014
Carol Costello says the league's light punishment sent the message that it didn't consider domestic violence a serious offense
updated 8:51 AM EDT, Mon July 28, 2014
Danny Cevallos says saggy pants aren't the kind of fashion statement protected by the First Amendment.
updated 2:52 PM EDT, Mon July 28, 2014
Margaret Hoover says some GOP legislators support a state's right to allow same-sex marriage and the right of churches, synagogues and mosques not to perform the sacrament
updated 2:31 PM EDT, Mon July 28, 2014
Megan McCracken and Jennifer Moreno say it's unacceptable for states to experiment with new execution procedures without full disclosure
updated 2:50 PM EDT, Mon July 28, 2014
Priya Satia says today's drones for bombardment and surveillance have their roots in the deadly history of Western aerial control of the Middle East that began in World War One
updated 12:35 PM EDT, Mon July 28, 2014
Jeff Yang says it's great to see the comics make an effort at diversifying the halls of justice
updated 11:55 AM EDT, Sat July 26, 2014
Rick Francona says the reported artillery firing from Russian territory is a sign Vladimir Putin has escalated the Ukraine battle
updated 2:22 PM EDT, Sun July 27, 2014
Paul Callan says the fact that appeals delay the death penalty doesn't make it an unconstitutional punishment, as one judge ruled
updated 6:25 PM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
Pilot Robert Mark says it's been tough for the airline industry after the plane crashes in Ukraine and Taiwan.
updated 11:10 AM EDT, Fri July 25, 2014
Jennifer DeVoe laments efforts to end subsidies that allow working Americans to finally afford health insurance.
updated 11:33 AM EDT, Sat July 26, 2014
Ruti Teitel says assigning a costly and humiliating "collective guilt" to Germany after WWI would end up teaching the global community hard lessons about who to blame for war crimes
updated 8:45 AM EDT, Fri July 25, 2014
John Sutter responds to criticism of his column on the ethics of eating dog.
updated 9:02 AM EDT, Fri July 25, 2014
Frida Ghitis says it's tempting to ignore North Korea's antics as bluster but the cruel regime is dangerous.
updated 2:50 PM EDT, Fri July 25, 2014
To the question "Is Putin evil?" Alexander Motyl says he is evil enough for condemnation by people of good will.
updated 2:03 PM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
Laurie Garrett: Poor governance, ignorance, hysteria worsen the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia.
updated 9:49 AM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
Patrick Cronin and Kelley Sayler say the world is seeing nonstate groups such as Ukraine's rebels wielding more power to do harm than ever before
updated 6:05 PM EDT, Wed July 23, 2014
Ukraine ambassador Olexander Motsyk places blame for the MH17 tragedy squarely at the door of Russia
updated 7:42 AM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
Mark Kramer says Russia and its proxies have a history of shooting down civilian aircraft, often with few repercussions
updated 2:53 PM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
Les Abend says, with rockets flying over Tel Aviv and missiles shooting down MH17 over Ukraine, a commercial pilot's pre-flight checklist just got much more complicated
updated 9:17 AM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
Mark Kramer says Russia and its proxies have a history of shooting down civilian aircraft, often with few repercussions
updated 12:37 PM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
Gerard Jacobs says grieving families and nations need the comfort of traditional rituals to honor the remains of loved ones, particularly in a mass disaster
updated 10:13 AM EDT, Thu July 24, 2014
The idea is difficult to stomach, but John Sutter writes that eating dog is morally equivalent to eating pig, another intelligent animal. If Americans oppose it, they should question their own eating habits as well.
updated 12:30 PM EDT, Wed July 23, 2014
Bill van Esveld says under the laws of war, civilians who do not join in the fight are always to be protected. An International Criminal Court could rule on whether Israeli airstrikes and Hamas rocketing are war crimes.
updated 10:08 AM EDT, Wed July 23, 2014
Gordon Brown says the kidnapped Nigerian girls have been in captivity for 100 days, but the world has not forgotten them.
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT