Jewish 74.8%, non-Jewish 25.2% (mostly Arab) (2015 est.)
Jewish 74.8%, Muslim
2%, Druze 1.6%, other 4% (2015 est.)
GDP (purchasing power parity): $297 billion (2016 est.)
GDP per capita: $34,800 (2016 est.)
Unemployment: 5% (2016 est.)
Israel is a parliamentary democracy comprised of legislative, executive and judicial branches.
About 93% of the land is owned by the State of Israel, the Jewish National Fund (JNF) and the Development Authority. The Israel Land Authority (ILA) manages the land. The government issues long-term leasing rights for land.
November 2, 1917 - The British government expresses support for the establishment of a permanent Jewish state in Palestine with a letter called the Balfour Declaration.
1922 - The League of Nations authorizes Great Britain to help the Jewish people establish a homeland in Palestine with the British Mandate for Palestine.
1936-1939 - Tension between Arabs and Jewish settlers leads to riots.
1937 - In the wake of the unrest, a British commission issues a report recommending the partition of Israel into an Arab state, a Jewish state and a neutral zone for holy sites. A year later, a separate commission concludes that the planned partition is impractical and the plan is abandoned.
1939-1945 - World War II
is fought in Europe and the Pacific. More than six million Jews are killed in the Holocaust.
November 29, 1947 -
The United Nations
approves a plan for the partition of Palestine. Between 1947 and 1949, more than 600,000 Arabs are displaced.
May 14, 1948 - The independent state of Israel is declared with David Ben-Gurion as prime minister.
May 1948 -
Forces from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq
and Lebanon invade, leading to the first in a series of Arab-Israeli wars.
1949 - An armistice agreement is reached. The West Bank is split off from Israel to become Jordanian territory and the Gaza Strip is designated as an Egyptian territory. The armistice is meant to be a temporary arrangement, a prelude to permanent peace treaties.
1949 - Israel is admitted into the United Nations.
January 1964 - Pope Paul VI visits Israel.
1964 - The Palestine Liberation Organization is formed.
June 5-10, 1967 - The Six-Day War is fought between Israel and Egypt, Jordan and Syria. At the end of this war, Israel doubles its land holdings to include the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
September 1972 -
Eleven members of the Israeli Olympic
team are killed by terrorists in Munich, Germany.
October 1973 -
Egypt and Syria launch air strikes against Israeli on the holy day, Yom Kippur.
The fighting continues for more than two weeks, ending after the UN adopts a resolution to stop the war.
November 19, 1977 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat visits Jerusalem for peace talks with Prime Minister Menachem Begin.
September 5-17, 1978 -
President Jimmy Carter sponsors a summit between Israel and Egypt at Camp David. The summit leads to an agreement called "The Framework for Peace in the Middle East," establishing a potential path to end the conflicts between Israel and neighboring countries. Begin and Sadat share the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize
March 1979 - The Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty is signed by Begin and Sadat. Israel agrees to withdraw its forces from the Sinai Peninsula while Egypt agrees to establish diplomatic relations with Israel and grant Israeli ships free passage through the Suez Canal.
December 1987 - The Intifada, a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, begins.
November 1988 - The PLO accepts two UN resolutions, recognizing Israel as a sovereign state and renouncing terrorism.
September 13, 1993 - PLO chairman Yasser Arafat
and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin shake hands on a Middle East peace deal.
Arafat, Rabin and Shimon Peres
share the Nobel Peace Prize. Full diplomatic relations are established with the Vatican
November 4, 1995 - Rabin is assassinated by an Israeli extremist opposed to the leader's diplomacy with Arab states.
March 21-26, 2000 - Pope John Paul II
September 28, 2000 - Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon
visits the Temple Mount, a holy place for both Jews and Muslims. The visit is condemned by Arafat and it leads to a wave of violent clashes in Jerusalem and the West Bank.
2002 - Israel begins construction of a wall along its border with the West Bank. As of August 2016, the project has yet to be completed.
2003 - President George W. Bush presents "Middle East: The Road Map to Peace."
Israeli and Palestinian leaders agreed to broad outlines of the plan, but as of August 2016, the countries have not reached the road map's endpoint: a two-state solution to resolve the conflicts between Israelis and Palestinians.
December 2003 - The Disengagement Plan, a planned withdrawal from Gaza and settlements in the West Bank, is announced by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.
May 2010 -
Pro-Palestinian activists aboard a Turkish passenger ship try to breach a blockade to reach Gaza with humanitarian supplies. Israeli commandos intercept the ship and nine activists are killed during the raid.
Three years after the incident, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
apologizes to Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
Israel releases 1,027 Palestinian prisoners in exchange for Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit,
captured in 2006.
March 2012 -
Israel suspends ties with the UN Human Rights Council, declining to cooperate with the group's planned investigation of Jewish settlements.
July 2013-April 2014 - Palestinians and Israel engage in peace talks. The negotiations end without an agreement.
June 2, 2014 - Hamas and Fatah swear in a unity government. A year later, the government is dissolved due to tensions between the two groups.
July-August 2014 -
In response to rocket attacks by Hamas, Israel conducts an offensive called Operation Protective Edge. According to the UN, 2,104 Palestinians are killed during the offensive.
On the Israeli side, 69 people are killed.
March 17, 2015 -
Prime Minister Netanyahu is reelected.
December 23, 2016 -
The UN Security Council approves a resolution which calls on Israel to "immediately and completely cease all settlement activities in the occupied Palestinian territory, including East Jerusalem."