Skip to main content

'Silent Night' in schools is OK

By Danny Cevallos, CNN Legal Analyst
updated 1:17 PM EST, Tue December 24, 2013
Members of the news media record the arrival of the official White House Christmas Tree at the North Portico of the White House in Washington on Friday, November 29. According to the White House, the tree, on display in the Blue Room, is an 18.5-foot Douglas fir grown by Chris Botek, a second-generation Christmas tree farmer from Lehighton, Pennsylvania. Members of the news media record the arrival of the official White House Christmas Tree at the North Portico of the White House in Washington on Friday, November 29. According to the White House, the tree, on display in the Blue Room, is an 18.5-foot Douglas fir grown by Chris Botek, a second-generation Christmas tree farmer from Lehighton, Pennsylvania.
HIDE CAPTION
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
A White House Christmas Tour
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
>
>>
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Danny Cevallos: A New York school district edited lyrics of "Silent Night"
  • He says courts have delved into issue of singing Christmas Carols in schools
  • First Amendment doesn't bar all religion from schools, but courts have set guidelines, he says
  • Cevallos: "Silent Night" is fine for a school choir in most cases

Editor's note: Danny Cevallos, a CNN legal analyst, is a criminal defense attorney practicing in Philadelphia, St. Thomas and St. Croix.

(CNN) -- Every year the holidays bring cold weather, family gatherings, gift-giving, and of course, the perennial debate over the Constitution and Christmas. Recently, a Long Island school district drew criticism following a performance that removed the holier lyrics from the traditional Christmas song "Silent Night."

Some parents objected when the fifth-grade choir at the school in Kings Park, New York, left out phrases such as "Christ the Savior".

The school superintendent said the principal and choir director removed the references to avoid "offense to people of other faith," according to Newsday.

Danny Cevallos
Danny Cevallos

But regardless of the reason, would it be legal for a school choir to perform "Silent Night" in its traditional form?

To enter the fray we have to understand some of the basics about the often-uncertain relationship between the First Amendment and public schools.

First, let's dispel the myths: The First Amendment does not ban all mention of any religion in public schools. As the Supreme Court has noted, "total separation (between church and state) is not possible in an absolute sense."

Choir's 'Silent Night' omits Christ

After all, when our kids study world history, they are often studying religion. Wars, civilizations, exploration, and human culture have always been motivated in part by some form of dogma.

To filter religion out of history leaves something that cannot, in good faith, still be called history. And while some Christmas music consists of light-hearted fare, other pieces are authored by Handel or Bach, and have undeniable value in a musical curriculum. Religion has always been a part of our civilization; the Constitution and our courts recognize this.

Instead, the Establishment Clause only prohibits the "advancement" or the "inhibition" of religion by the state. Of course, that's a distinction that's much easier to describe than it is to identify in real life. When does a school cross the line into advancing or inhibiting religion?

In 1971 the United States Supreme Court decided Lemon v. Kurtzman and formulated the "Lemon Test," which is a three-pronged evaluation of the constitutionality of legislation concerning religion. A court will consider the following:

1. The government's action must have a secular (non-religious) purpose.

2. The government's action cannot have the principal or primary effect of (a) advancing religion, or (b) inhibiting religion. It would be impossible to develop a public school curriculum that did not in some way affect the religious or nonreligious sensibilities of some of the students or their parents. Therefore, the test is not "any effect." Rather, the courts will look to the "principal or primary" effect.

3. The government's action cannot "excessively entangle" itself with religion -- that is, it cannot intrude into, participate in, or supervise religious affairs.

So how does this apply to singing Christmas carols in school? Fortunately, the courts have squarely dealt with that issue, in the context of ... you guessed it ... "Silent Night."

In perhaps the first case to deal specifically with Christmas music, an atheist father challenged the Sioux Falls, South Dakota, school board's use of "Silent Night" (and other songs) in the school's Christmas program. The Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals -- one of the last stops before the Supreme Court -- applied the Lemon test in Florey v. Sioux Falls School District, and held that both the study and performance of religious songs, including Christmas carols, are constitutional if their purpose is the "advancement of the students' knowledge of society's cultural and religious heritage, as well as the provision of an opportunity for students to perform a full range of music, poetry and drama that is likely to be of interest to the students and their audience."

The court also reiterated that:

"It is unquestioned that public school students may be taught about the customs and cultural heritage of the United States and other countries." And that schools may "allow the presentation of material that, although of religious origin, has taken on an independent meaning."

After Florey, it appears that the Establishment Clause does not prevent the singing of Christmas carols with religious origins by public school choirs, though the line seems very thin. For example, if instead of singing "Silent Night," the kids were made to take a quiz testing them on the religious facts undergirding the song:

Q: In the song Silent Night, who is the "Saviour"?

A: Jesus Christ!

Then the school likely crosses into administration of religious training, which is the domain of family and church, not schools. If nothing else though, it certainly appears that "Silent Night," though much more religious than "Jingle Bells," or "White Christmas," is a street-legal public school choir song.

So it appears that schools may include even religious Christmas carols in their curriculum without violating the Constitution. But, can a school go the other direction, and prohibit all Christmas carols from the curriculum?

At least one federal court has held that they can. In Stratechuk v. Board of Educ., South Orange-Maplewood School Dist., the Third Circuit Court of Appeals held that a school district's policy to bar performance of religious holiday music at seasonal shows, while allowing it to be taught in class, had a legitimate secular purpose of avoiding potential Establishment Clause problems, and was not "hostile" to religion.

So schools appear to have broad discretion to include or prohibit Christmas carols, as long as they don't run afoul of the Lemon test.

Navigating the constitutional perils of religion in school is not easy -- indeed, every year the holiday season brings with it an Establishment Clause debate. The courts and schools will continue to struggle with defining permissible non-secular content. At least there are some less contentious holiday traditions that we can always count on: egg nog, gift returns, and bad decisions at office parties. Happy holidays indeed.

Follow us on Twitter @CNNOpinion.

Join us on Facebook/CNNOpinion.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Danny Cevallos.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
updated 8:21 AM EDT, Mon September 1, 2014
Carlos Moreno says atheists, a sizable fraction of Americans, deserve representation in Congress.
updated 12:25 PM EDT, Sun August 31, 2014
Julian Zelizer says Democrats and unions have a long history of mutual support that's on the decline. But in a time of income inequality they need each other more than ever
updated 12:23 AM EDT, Sun August 31, 2014
William McRaven
Peter Bergen says Admiral William McRaven leaves the military with a legacy of strategic thinking about special operations
updated 12:11 PM EDT, Fri August 29, 2014
Leon Aron says the U.S. and Europe can help get Russia out of Ukraine by helping Ukraine win its just war, sharing defense technologies and intelligence
updated 1:24 PM EDT, Fri August 29, 2014
Timothy Stanley the report on widespread child abuse in a British town reveals an institutional betrayal by police, social services and politicians. Negligent officials must face justice
updated 9:06 PM EDT, Fri August 29, 2014
Peter Bergen and David Sterman say a new video of an American suicide bomber shows how Turkey's militant networks are key to jihadists' movement into Syria and Iraq. Turkey must stem the flow
updated 11:54 AM EDT, Mon September 1, 2014
Whitney Barkley says many for-profit colleges deceive students, charge exorbitant tuitions and make false promises
updated 10:34 AM EDT, Fri August 29, 2014
Mark O'Mara says the time has come to decide whether we really want police empowered to shoot those they believe are 'fleeing felons'
updated 10:32 AM EDT, Thu August 28, 2014
Bill Frelick says a tool of rights workers is 'naming and shaming,' ensuring accountability for human rights crimes in conflicts. But what if wrongdoers know no shame?
updated 10:43 PM EDT, Thu August 28, 2014
Jay Parini says, no, a little girl shouldn't fire an Uzi, but none of should have easy access to guns: The Second Amendment was not written to give us such a 'right,' no matter what the NRA says
updated 1:22 PM EDT, Sat August 30, 2014
Terra Ziporyn Snider says many adolescents suffer chronic sleep deprivation, which can indeed lead to safety problems. Would starting school an hour later be so wrong?
updated 9:30 AM EDT, Fri August 29, 2014
Peggy Drexler says after all the celebrity divorces, it's tempting to ask the question. But there are still considerable benefits to getting hitched
updated 2:49 PM EDT, Fri August 29, 2014
The death of Douglas McAuthur McCain, the first American killed fighting for ISIS, highlights the pull of Syria's war for Western jihadists, writes Peter Bergen.
updated 6:42 PM EDT, Tue August 26, 2014
Former ambassador to Syria Robert Ford says the West should be helping moderates in the Syrian armed opposition end the al-Assad regime and form a government to focus on driving ISIS out
updated 9:21 AM EDT, Wed August 27, 2014
Ruben Navarrette says a great country does not deport thousands of vulnerable, unaccompanied minors who fled in fear for their lives
updated 9:19 AM EDT, Wed August 27, 2014
Robert McIntyre says Congress is the culprit for letting Burger King pay lower taxes after merging with Tim Hortons.
updated 7:35 PM EDT, Tue August 26, 2014
Wesley Clark says the U.S. can offer support to its Islamic friends in the region most threatened by ISIS, but it can't fight their war
updated 4:53 PM EDT, Tue August 26, 2014
America's painful struggle with racism has often brought great satisfaction to the country's rivals, critics, and foes. The killing of Michael Brown and its tumultuous aftermath has been a bonanza.
updated 3:19 PM EDT, Tue August 26, 2014
Rick Martin says the death of Robin Williams brought back memories of his own battle facing down depression as a young man
updated 11:58 AM EDT, Tue August 26, 2014
David Perry asks: What's the best way for police officers to handle people with psychiatric disabilities?
updated 3:50 PM EDT, Mon August 25, 2014
Julian Zelizer says it's not crazy to think Mitt Romney would be able to end up at the top of the GOP ticket in 2016
updated 4:52 PM EDT, Mon August 25, 2014
Roxanne Jones and her girlfriends would cheer from the sidelines for the boys playing Little League. But they really wanted to play. Now Mo'ne Davis shows the world that girls really can throw.
updated 5:04 PM EDT, Mon August 25, 2014
Kimberly Norwood is a black mom who lives in an affluent neighborhood not far from Ferguson, but she has the same fears for her children as people in that troubled town do
updated 5:45 PM EDT, Fri August 22, 2014
It apparently has worked for France, say Peter Bergen and Emily Schneider, but carries uncomfortable risks. When it comes to kidnappings, nations face grim options.
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT