- The meeting comes after tech leaders called for the government to change spying practices
- The judge's limited ruling opens the door to possible further legal challenges
- The NSA data-mining can continue, pending a likely appeal by the government
- Classified leaks by Edward Snowden revealed the extent of the data-mining
President Barack Obama will meet with more than a dozen tech company bosses Tuesday, one week after industry leaders asked the government to change its spying practices.
The White House meeting comes a day after a federal judge said the government's collection of domestic phone records is unconstitutional. Such practices were brought to light by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden, who leaked the classified information.
Obama plans to sit down with Tim Cook of Apple and Eric Schmidt of Google, as well as executives from Twitter, Microsoft, Facebook, Salesforce, Netflix , Etsy, Dropbox, Yahoo!, Zynga, Sherpa Global, Comcast, LinkedIn and AT&T, a White House official said.
But national security and "unauthorized intelligence disclosures" are only part of the agenda. The meeting will also include talks about how the tech sector can help the government avoid IT debacles like the healthcare.gov website rollout.
The judge's decision
U.S. District Judge Richard Leon's ruling came as the Obama administration completes a review of NSA surveillance in the aftermath of the Snowden leaks.
Leon said the NSA's bulk collection of metadata -- phone records of the time and numbers called without any disclosure of content -- apparently violates privacy rights.
His preliminary ruling favored five plaintiffs challenging the practice, but Leon limited the decision only to their cases.
"I cannot imagine a more 'indiscriminate' and 'arbitrary invasion' than this systematic and high-tech collection and retention of personal data on virtually every citizen for purposes of querying and analyzing it without prior judicial approval," said Leon, an appointee of President George W. Bush. "Surely, such a program infringes on 'that degree of privacy' that the Founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment."
Leon's ruling said the "plaintiffs in this case have also shown a strong likelihood of success on the merits of a Fourth Amendment claim," adding "as such, they too have adequately demonstrated irreparable injury."
But he put off enforcing his order barring the government from collecting the information, pending an appeal by the government.
Leon rejected the government's argument that a 1979 Maryland case provided precedent for the constitutionality of collecting phone metadata, noting that public use of telephones had increased dramatically in the past three decades.
Leon also noted that the government "does not cite a single instance in which analysis of the NSA's bulk metadata collection actually stopped an imminent attack, or otherwise aided the government in achieving any objective that was time-sensitive in nature."
Democratic Sen. Mark Udall of Colorado, a critic of the NSA data mining, called on Congress to pass legislation he proposed to "ensure the NSA focuses on terrorists and spies - and not innocent Americans."
A Justice Department spokesman said Monday that "we believe the program is constitutional as previous judges have found," but said the ruling is being studied.
The avalanche of information
Explosive revelations earlier this year by Snowden triggered new debate about national security and privacy interests in the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks.
Snowden's revelations led to more public disclosure about the secretive legal process that sets in motion the government surveillance.
In a statement distributed by journalist Glenn Greenwald, who first reported the leaks, Snowden said he acted on the belief that the mass surveillance program would not withstand a constitutional challenge, and that Americans deserved a judicial review.
"Today, a secret program authorized by a secret court was, when exposed to the light of day, found to violate Americans' rights. It is the first of many," Snowden said in the statement. He is living in Russia under a grant of asylum to avoid prosecution over the leaks in the United States.
Greenwald said the judge's ruling vindicates what Snowden did.
"I think it's not only the right, but the duty of an American citizen in Edward Snowden's situation to come forward, at great risk to himself, and inform his fellow citizens about what it is their government is doing in the dark that is illegal," the journalist told CNN's "Anderson Cooper 360" Monday night.
Secret court approval
The case before Leon involved approval for surveillance in April by a judge at the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC), a secret body that handles individual requests for electronic surveillance for "foreign intelligence purposes."
Under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of the 1970s, the secret court was set up to grant certain types of government requests-- wiretapping, data analysis, and other monitoring of possible terrorists and spies operating in the United States.
The NSA has admitted it received secret court approval to collect vast amounts of metadata from telecom giant Verizon and leading Internet companies, including Microsoft, Apple, Google, Yahoo and Facebook.
The Patriot Act that Congress passed after the 9/11 attacks broadened the government's ability to conduct anti-terrorism surveillance in the United States and abroad, eventually including the metadata collection.In order to collect the information, the government has to demonstrate that it's "relevant" to an international terrorism investigation.
But the 1978 FISA law lays out exactly what the special court must decide: "A judge considering a petition to modify or set aside a nondisclosure order may grant such petition only if the judge finds that there is no reason to believe that disclosure may endanger the national security of the United States, interfere with a criminal, counterterrorism, or counterintelligence investigation, interfere with diplomatic relations, or endanger the life or physical safety of any person."
In defending the program, NSA Director Gen. Keith Alexander told the Senate Judiciary Committee last week that "15 separate judges of the FISA Court have held on 35 occasions that Section 215 (of the Patriot Act) authorizes the collection of telephony metadata in bulk in support of counterterrorism investigations."
Initially, telecommunications companies such as Verizon, were the targets of legal action against Patriot Act provisions. Congress later gave retroactive immunity to those private businesses.
Verizon Business Network Services turned over the metadata to the government.
An array of legal challenges
Last month, the Supreme Court refused to take up the issue when it denied a separate petition, which was filed by the Electronic Information Privacy Center. Prior lawsuits against the broader NSA program also have been unsuccessful.
Days after the Snowden disclosure in June, some Verizon customers filed legal challenges in the D.C. federal court.
The left-leaning American Civil LIberties Union also filed a separate, pending suit in New York federal court.