Skip to main content
Part of complete coverage on
 

50 years on, the enduring lessons of JFK's presidency

By Andrew Hammond, Special to CNN
updated 9:38 AM EST, Thu November 21, 2013
President John F. Kennedy greets supporters during his visit to Fort Worth, Texas, on Friday, November 22, 1963. This year marks 51 years since his assassination in Dallas, an event that jarred the nation and fueled a multitude of conspiracy theories about whether Kennedy was killed by a single gunman acting alone in the Texas School Book Depository. Here are some images from that fateful day as it unfolded. President John F. Kennedy greets supporters during his visit to Fort Worth, Texas, on Friday, November 22, 1963. This year marks 51 years since his assassination in Dallas, an event that jarred the nation and fueled a multitude of conspiracy theories about whether Kennedy was killed by a single gunman acting alone in the Texas School Book Depository. Here are some images from that fateful day as it unfolded.
HIDE CAPTION
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
John F. Kennedy: The day
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
>
>>
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Friday marks the 50th anniversary of the assassination of John F. Kennedy
  • Presidency offers lessons on U.S. policy in Mideast and China - Andrew Hammond
  • Hammond: JFK powerfully renewed U.S. global leadership, helping to thaw Cold War
  • Objective appraisal of JFK's presidency must highlight lows and highs, he adds

Editor's note: Andrew Hammond was formerly a special adviser in the government of former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, and also a geopolitical analyst at Oxford Analytica. Watch "The Assassination of President Kennedy" on CNN TV Thursday, Nov. 21 at 9 p.m. and Friday, Nov. 22 at 10p.

(CNN) -- This Friday marks the 50th anniversary of the assassination of John F. Kennedy, one of history's most notable figures. Despite holding office for less than a full term, he has long been perceived by the U.S. public as one of the best occupants of the White House.

Yet JFK's presidency is inspiring not just to Americans, but also to many others around the world too. And it offers key lessons for today, ranging from U.S. policy in the Middle East post-9/11, to how to best engage a "rising" China.

Andrew Hammond
Andrew Hammond

At a time when U.S.-Soviet rivalry was becoming heavily militarized, JFK's political genius was to appreciate that the superpower contest was as much a battle for ideas as strength of force. Through his skilful rebalancing of hard and soft power, he powerfully renewed U.S. global leadership, helping to thaw the Cold War.

Here his projection of hope and optimism, and stirring rhetoric appealed to U.S. and international audiences alike, including those behind the Iron Curtain. Landmark speeches included the one he made in Berlin in 1963 when he offered U.S. solidarity with West Germany.

And his desire to re-set U.S.-Soviet relations was expressed eloquently too, including a compelling speech at the American University after the Cuban missile crisis. This was described even by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev as the "the greatest speech by any U.S. president since [Franklin] Roosevelt."

New photos of JFK's final minutes
Kennedy in Japan
Film shows JFK's death from unseen angles

Renewal of U.S. international policy was not just rhetorical, as initiatives like the Peace Corps and the South America-focused Alliance for Progress underline. And, through landmark achievements such as the International Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, JFK gave substance to his ambition of moving toward international peace.

To be sure, an objective appraisal of JFK's period in the White House must highlight lows as well as the highs. In addition to successes such as his management of the Cuban missile crisis, there was also the Bay of Pigs invasion debacle.

And JFK had a much more limited record of legislative success than his successor Lyndon Johnson. Professional historians therefore tend to rate JFK's presidency as "good," rather than "great," with reason.

Of course, the circumstances of today are transformed from those of the early 1960s. As well as the end of the Cold War, the United States has experienced relative decline: for instance, its economy now accounts for less than a quarter of global GDP compared to around a third then.

Yet, the relevance of JFK's insights about international cooperation and peace endure. As does the wisdom of much of the way in which he harnessed U.S. leadership and power to try to achieve these ends.

Indeed, at a time of U.S. military cutbacks, and given the ongoing information revolution, the importance of achieving better balance between -- often expensive -- hard power assets and soft power resources is perhaps even more important today for Washington. And this is true right across the world from Asia-Pacific through the Middle East and South America.

On China policy, for instance, some U.S. hawks advocate a much tougher stance toward Beijing. However, as JFK would have recognized, Washington has much to gain from cooperation with Beijing too, and it would be a mistake to view the relationship solely through a lens of threat and suspicion.

JFK conspiracy theories
John Fitzgerald Kennedy and his fiancée, Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, playing tennis in 1953. They were history's power couple, a dashing Democrat and an elegant wife. They were both from influential families and became superstars before he entered the White House. Take a look back at the couple that embodied the image of a perfect family. John Fitzgerald Kennedy and his fiancée, Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, playing tennis in 1953. They were history's power couple, a dashing Democrat and an elegant wife. They were both from influential families and became superstars before he entered the White House. Take a look back at the couple that embodied the image of a perfect family.
John and Jackie: A love story
HIDE CAPTION
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
>
>>
John and Jackie: A love story John and Jackie: A love story

To be sure, there remains a legitimate remaining need for maintaining significant U.S. military power in Asia, not least to re-assure key allies. However, on issues ranging from North Korea, terrorism, through to the future stability of the global economy, China has a potentially key role to play in concert with the United States.

Here the role of soft power is key as Washington seeks to better integrate Beijing into a network of regional and global institutions and alliances. In so doing, this will help incentivize China even more strongly toward a path of constructive partnership.

In the Middle East meanwhile, U.S. standing in numerous countries has unfortunately been at a low ebb now for at least a decade. Only 11% of the population in Pakistan, 14% in Jordan, 16% in Egypt and the Palestinian territories, and 21% in Turkey, currently have favourable views toward the United States, according to Pew Global.

Despite some U.S. overtures, the challenge remains monumental. This is such a critical issue given the wide-range of U.S. priorities in Middle Eastern and other Muslim-majority countries, including the "campaign against terrorism."

As JFK would surely have appreciated, there is a compelling need for redoubling efforts to win the battle for moderate "hearts and minds." This can be best achieved through a vigorous re-assertion of U.S. soft power, combined with prudent use of hard power.

Such an agenda would require much greater resourcing for activities such as public diplomacy, broadcasting, development assistance and exchange programs. U.S. public diplomacy is in particularly strong need of revitalization, with a clearer long-term strategy essential.

Taken overall, it is clear that JFK's key insights about international relations retain much relevance and appeal. And for this reason alone, his presidency will continue to hold not just enduring value, but also inspiration, right across the world for many years to come.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Andrew Hammond.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
updated 4:01 PM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
The U.S. has promised to supply and train "acceptable" rebels in Syria to counter ISIS. But who are they and are can the strategy work?
updated 10:57 PM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
Do the Chinese really like to mix their Bordeaux with Coca-Cola?
updated 8:08 AM EDT, Tue September 23, 2014
Al Qaeda's new Syrian branch, Khorasan, is seeking new ways to attack America and Europe, with a top U.S. intelligence official saying it has "aspirations for attacks on the homeland."
updated 8:39 PM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
Branded an "extremist" by China's state-run media, Joshua Wong isn't even old enough to drive.
updated 2:55 AM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi surprised political pundits with his rapid rise to power. CNN meets the man behind the enigma.
updated 7:44 AM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
Liverpool's Italian forward Mario Balotelli reacts during the UEFA Champions League Group B match between Liverpool and Ludogorets Razgrad at the Anfield stadium in Liverpool on September 16, 2014.
British police launched an investigation into abusive tweets sent to Liverpool striker Mario Balotelli.
updated 7:44 PM EDT, Sun September 21, 2014
A woman who was texting her husband before he was killed reflects on the Westgate attack.
updated 11:54 AM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
The real secret to a faster commute has been with us all along -- the bus.
updated 9:16 AM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
13 brands retained their Top 20 status from last year, according to an annual survey.
updated 11:49 AM EDT, Mon September 22, 2014
Think your new tattoo is cool? Look at how our ancestors did it and think again.
updated 6:52 AM EDT, Tue September 23, 2014
Each day, CNN brings you an image capturing a moment to remember, defining the present in our changing world.
Browse through images from CNN teams around the world that you don't always see on news reports.
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT