Failure of Appeasement - Czechoslovakia had become an independent nation after World War I, but by 1938, was surrounded by German territory. Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, an area in western Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain wanted to appease Hitler and agreed to his demands for the Sudetenland after Hitler promised he would not demand more territory. Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia in March of 1939.
Germany, Japan, and Italy formed a coalition called the Axis Powers. Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and two German-created states--Croatia and Slovakia--eventually joined.
Major Players:Germany -
Adolf Hitler, Der Furher
Admiral Hideki Tojo, Prime MinisterItaly -
Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister
The United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union made up the Allies, the group fighting the Axis. Between 1939 and 1944 at least 50 nations would eventually fight together. Thirteen more nations would join by 1945 including: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, British Commonwealth of Nations, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Philippines, and Yugoslavia.
United States - Franklin D. Roosevelt, President
Great Britain - Winston Churchill, Prime Minister
China - Chiang Kai-Shek, General
Soviet Union - Joseph Stalin, General
U.S. Troop Statistics:
16,112,566 - Number of U.S. troops that served in the conflict.
670,846 - Number of U.S. wounded.
Total In-Theatre: 405,399
Other Military Casualties by Country 1939-1945 (selected):
Australia: 23,365 dead; 39,803 wounded
Austria: 380,000 dead; 350,117 wounded
Belgium: 7,760 dead; 14,500 wounded
Bulgaria: 10,000 dead; 21,878 wounded
Canada: 37,476 dead; 53,174 wounded
China: 2,200,000 dead; 1,762,000 wounded
France: 210,671 dead; 390,000 wounded
Germany: 3,500,000 dead; 7,250,000 wounded
Great Britain: 329,208 dead; 348,403 wounded
Hungary: 140,000 dead; 89,313 wounded
Italy: 77,494 dead; 120,000 wounded
Japan: 1,219,000 dead; 295,247 wounded
Poland: 320,000 dead; 530,000 wounded
Romania: 300,000 dead; wounded unknown
Soviet Union: 7,500,000 dead; 5,000,000 wounded
United States: 405,399 dead; 670,846 wounded
About 70 million people fought in the armed forces of the Allied and Axis nations.
Finland never officially joined either the Allies or the Axis and was at war with the Soviet Union at the outbreak of World War II. Needing help in 1940, the Finnish joined forces with Nazi Germany to repel the Soviets. When peace between Finland the Soviet Union was declared in 1944, Finland joined with the Soviets to oust the Germans.
Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and Sweden declared neutrality during the war.
The Soviet Union lost the most soldiers, in excess of seven million.
The number of civilian casualties in World War II may never be known. Many deaths were caused by bombing raids, massacres, starvation and other war-related causes.
It is believed that approximately six million Jewish people died in Nazi concentration camps
during the war. Also killed were hundreds of thousands of Roma people and people with mental or physical disabilities.
The Lend-Lease Act
was created to allow the United States to lend or lease weapons, equipment, or raw materials to any nation fighting the Axis. Eventually, 38 nations received about $50 billion in aid. Most went to Great Britain and the Soviet Union.
In 1948, the United States created the Marshall Plan
to help rebuild war torn Europe. Eventually, 18 nations received $13 billion in food, machinery and other goods.
In March of 1974, Hiroo Onoda
, a Japanese soldier still fighting the war, was found by a search party on the island of Lubang in the Philippines. After he is convinced the war is over by his former commanding officer he is then flown to Manila and formally surrenders to President Ferdinand Marcos. Mr. Onoda died January 16, 2014, at the age of 91.
September 1, 1939
- Germany invades Poland. Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Belgium, and France soon fall into German control, until only the United Kingdom is left to face Germany.
June 10, 1940 - Italy joins the war on the side of Germany by declaring war against Britain (UK) and France. Fighting spreads to Greece and Northern Africa.
June 14, 1940 - German troops march into Paris.
July 1940-September 1940 - Germany and Great Britain fight an air war, the Battle of Britain, along the English coastline.
September 7, 1940-May 1941 - German bombing campaign of nightly air raids over London, known as the Blitz.
January 22, 1941 - British and Commonwealth troops take over the port city of Tobruk, Libya.
June 22, 1941 - Germany invades the Soviet Union.
September 1941 - Japanese troops invade Indochina.
December 7, 1941 - Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, destroying more than half of the fleet of aircraft, and damaging all eight battleships. Japan also attacks Clark and Iba airfields in the Philippines destroying over half of the U.S. Army's aircraft there.
December 8, 1941 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers the "a date which will live in infamy" speech to Congress, and the U.S declares war on Japan. Japan invades Hong Kong, Guam, the Wake Islands, Singapore, and British Malaya.
December 11, 1941 - Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
By Christmas 1941, Japan had taken Thailand, Guam, Hong Kong, and Wake Island.
1942 - The Allies stop the Axis Powers' advance in Northern Africa and the Soviet Union.
February 1942 - Japan invades the Malay Peninsula. Singapore surrenders within a week.
June 4-6, 1942 - Japan's plans to invade the Hawaiian Islands, starting at Midway Island, but the United States cracks the code of the mission. Japan attacks Midway and loses four aircraft carriers and over 200 planes and pilots in the first clear victory for the United States.
August 19, 1942 - The battle for Stalingrad begins as Germany pushes further into Russia.
August 1942-February 1943 - U.S. Marines fight for and hold the Pacific island of Guadalcanal.
October 23, 1942 - British troops push Axis troops into retreating to Tunisia in the Second Battle of El Alamein.
February 1, 1943 - The German troops in Stalingrad surrender, defeated in large part by the Soviet winter. The defeat marks the halt of Germany's eastbound advance.
July 10, 1943 - Allied forces land in Italy.
July 25, 1943 - The King of Italy is restored to full power, and Mussolini is deposed and arrested.
November 1943-March 1944 - U.S. Marines invade the Solomon Islands at Bougainville to recapture it from the Japanese.
June 6, 1944
in which Allied forces land on five beaches at Normandy: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword. The landing includes over 5,000 ships, 11,000 airplanes and over 150,000 service men.
August 25, 1944 - American and Free French forces liberate Paris.
January 27, 1945 - Soviet troops liberate the Auschwitz camp complex, located near Krakow, Poland.
February 19-March 26, 1945 - U.S. Marines battle the Japanese for the island of Iwo Jima.
April 12, 1945 - President Roosevelt dies in Warm Springs, Georgia. Vice President Harry Truman takes the oath of office as president.
April 25, 1945 - Soviet troops surround Berlin.
April 28, 1945 - Mussolini is killed attempting to escape to Switzerland.
April 29, 1945 - U.S. soldiers liberate the Dachau concentration camp outside of Munich, Germany.
April 30, 1945 - Hitler and wife Eva Braun commit suicide.
May 7, 1945 - Germany surrenders in a red school house in Reims, Germany, Eisenhower's headquarters. V-E Day is celebrated on May 8 because that was the day the armistice went into effect.
May 8, 1945 - V-E Day, Victory in Europe. The war in Europe is officially over.
July 16, 1945 - First successful test of the atomic bomb in Alamogordo, New Mexico.
July 29, 1945 - President Harry Truman warns Japan that the country will be destroyed if it does not surrender unconditionally. Japan continues fighting.
August 6, 1945 - The first atomic bomb used in warfare, nicknamed Little Boy, is dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, killing up to 140,000 people.
August 9, 1945 - After getting no response from the Japanese government after the Hiroshima bombing, a second atomic bomb, nicknamed Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, killing up to 80,000 people.
August 14, 1945 - Japan unconditionally agrees to accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration and end the war. V-J Day, Victory over Japan, is declared.
September 2, 1945 - Japan signs the formal surrender aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.