Italian Foreign Minister Giulio Terzi resigned Tuesday in the wake of a dispute with India over the 2012 killing of two Indian fishermen.
Italy has agreed to send two Italian marines accused of the crime to India to face trial, after initially refusing to return them.
Terzi announced his resignation during a speech in parliament on Tuesday, Foreign Office spokeswoman Federica Mazzotti said.
The dispute began after Italy allowed the two suspects to return to Italy last month to vote in national elections.
Rome's initial refusal to send them back angered Indian government officials and Supreme Court justices, who noted that the Italian ambassador had given assurances to the court that the marines would come back to India after the elections.