Skip to main content

Rise and fall of Reader's Digest

By Joanne Sharp, Special to CNN
updated 7:02 AM EST, Wed February 20, 2013
Reader's Digest magazine is displayed on a rack at a grocery store in San Anselmo, California.
Reader's Digest magazine is displayed on a rack at a grocery store in San Anselmo, California.
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Joanne Sharp: Reader's Digest once had a huge role in shaping opinion
  • Sharp: Digest propagated Cold War view that USSR was a primary danger to American way
  • Reader's Digest was hugely popular, she says, but critics called it state propaganda
  • Sharp: It declined with the end of general interest magazines and fear of the Evil Empire

Editor's note: Joanne Sharp is a professor at the University of Glasgow in Scotland and author of the book "Condensing the Cold War: Reader's Digest and American Identity."

(CNN) -- Reader's Digest seems to be on life support, filing for bankruptcy protection this week for the second time in four years. But at one time, what's now seen as grandma's magazine was an influential and powerful force in politics and culture.

When I began my book on the Reader's Digest, people were incredulous. "But no one takes that seriously," they'd say. "People only read it when they're waiting to see the dentist." Yet, those who dismiss the magazine as trivial underestimate the Digest's impact on millions of Americans' view of the world.

From its humble beginnings in 1922, Reader's Digest became the highest circulating general interest magazine in the United States, reaching more than 16 million readers a month. From 1938 on, the Digest could be read in 17 languages. In the U.S., Reader's Digest had the highest subscription rate of any magazine except TV Guide.

Joanne Sharp
Joanne Sharp

Reader's Digest started life not long after the emergence of the USSR. Initially, the magazine was sympathetic to the Russian revolution, seeing it as a movement against what it regarded as undemocratic, aristocratic European society.

Become a fan of CNNOpinion
Stay up to date on the latest opinion, analysis and conversations through social media. Join us at Facebook/CNNOpinion and follow us @CNNOpinion on Twitter. We welcome your ideas and comments.



By the 1930s, however, it had identified the USSR with communism. Later, it began to publish stories that portrayed the Soviet state as the primary danger to post-World War II America.

The Digest presented the U.S. and USSR as polar opposites. As well as running clearly political articles that explained international relations and threats to peace, the magazine's ostensibly apolitical stories reinforced this image of two incompatible societies.

Descriptions of everyday life in America and the Soviet Union detailed how different Americans were from Russians, how different Russians' music was, their food, their sense of humor -- even Russian sex lives were different. At the extreme, in 1981 a story about an American in Siberia seemed to suggest biological differences when it reported the American's body rejected a Russian blood transfusion.

These types of stories earned the Digest a reputation as a leading voice in anti-communism.

As it gained prominence, Reader's Digest drew criticism. Despite the publication's determination to celebrate individual freedoms, it was accused of being nothing more than state propaganda. There were claims of CIA funding and editorial control, especially in its foreign editions in Latin America.

Whether these accusations were true or not, the magazine's influence in popular culture could perhaps be seen as even more powerful and pernicious. As a digest, the magazine sought not to reflect the immediate news but issues and ideas of "lasting interest." Famously, Ronald Reagan was said to have a box full of Digest articles that he had collected for reference.

Reader's Digest meant to provide readers with all of the information they needed to know about what was important in the world, what America's role in the world should be and what they, as good citizens, should do to preserve the American way. It became a trusted source of news. In the days before electronic communication, it was perhaps the only source that many people, particularly those in rural areas, could access regularly.

Candidates talk to Reader's Digest

Reader's Digest presented itself as a guardian of American morality and values. In June 1960, a Reader's Digest advertisement quoted President Dwight D. Eisenhower as saying, "Our magazines are a leading force for moral and cultural growth in our country and one of the surest guarantees of an informed public."

Exactly what the relationship was between Reader's Digest and state foreign policy is unclear, but its role in encouraging American readers to think about and actively engage in world affairs is beyond doubt.

In the February 1969 issue, apparently fearing a lack of support for the Vietnam War, Reader's Digest launched a "Fly this Flag Proudly" campaign, inserting flag decals into the 18 million copies of the magazine. A follow-up survey indicated that 78% of readers had detached the flag, and half of those people had put it to use.

A few years earlier, an article on how Brazil resisted a communist takeover was deemed to contain such "vital, useful information for every nation menaced by communist subversion" that readers were encouraged to send it -- and free reprints -- to friends abroad, or to place it into "the hands of concerned people [whom readers] may meet" on vacation.

When relations with the USSR began to thaw, the Digest feared that Americans were overlooking the danger presented by the Soviets. During detente and the beginnings of the end of the Cold War, articles warned readers not to trust those who suggested that the Soviets could change.

The fall of the Berlin Wall heralded a collapse of the Digest's moral certainty about the difference between America and its old enemy.

Perhaps the decline of Reader's Digest's fortunes was inevitable with the longer-term social and political influences of 60s counterculture, the failure of general interest magazines, the rise of global media targeted at specific niches and the advent of the internet. But of equal importance was the end of the Soviet threat: With the fall of its arch enemy, the Evil Empire, there was no mirror against which it could present an alternative image of America and its historic mission.

Follow us on Twitter @CNNOpinion.

Join us on Facebook/CNNOpinion.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Joanne Sharp.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
updated 12:53 PM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
Jeff Yang calls Ello a wakeup call to Facebook and Twitter, and a sign of hope for fast-rising upstarts Pinterest and Snapchat.
updated 10:23 AM EDT, Wed October 1, 2014
Paul Waldman says the Secret Service should examine its procedures to make sure there are no threats to the White House--but without losing the openness so valuable to democracy
updated 10:55 AM EDT, Wed October 1, 2014
Jesse Williams says the videotape and 911 call that resulted in police gunning down John Crawford at a Walmart reveals the fatal injustice of racial assumptions
updated 7:03 PM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
Mel Robbins says officials should drop the P.C. pose: The beheading in Oklahoma was not workplace violence. Plenty of evidence shows Alton Nolen was an admirer of ISIS.
updated 3:11 PM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
The Occupy Central movement has already achieved much by bringing greater attention to Hong Kong's struggle for democracy, William Piekos says..
updated 3:11 PM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
The Occupy Central movement has already achieved much by bringing greater attention to Hong Kong's struggle for democracy, writes William Piekos.
updated 10:13 AM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
As Prime Minister Narendra Modi visits America, Madeleine Albright says a world roiled by conflict needs these two great democracies to commit to moving their partnership forward
updated 10:04 AM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
John Sutter: Lake Providence, Louisiana, is the parish seat of the "most unequal place in America." And until somewhat recently, the poor side of town was invisible on Google Street View.
updated 9:11 AM EDT, Mon September 29, 2014
Julian Zelizer says in the run up to the 2016 election the party faces divisions on its approach to the U.S.'s place in the world
updated 10:19 AM EDT, Mon September 29, 2014
Ruben Navarrette says Common Core supporters can't devise a new set of standards and then fail to effectively sell it.
updated 9:29 AM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
Earlier this month, Kenyans commemorated the heinous attack on the Westgate Mall in Nairobi.
updated 2:59 PM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
David Wheeler says Colorado students are right to protest curriculum changes that downplays civil disobedience.
updated 9:58 PM EDT, Fri September 26, 2014
Sally Kohn says when people click on hacked celebrity photos or ISIS videos, they are encouraging the bad guys.
updated 7:55 AM EDT, Fri September 26, 2014
Loren Bunche says she walked by a homeless man every day and felt bad about it -- until one day she paused to get to know him
updated 9:32 AM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014
ISIS grabs headlines on social media, but hateful speech is no match for moderate voices, says Nadia Oweidat.
updated 8:33 AM EDT, Mon September 29, 2014
A new report counts jihadists fighting globally. The verdict? The threat isn't that big, says Peter Bergen.
updated 5:37 PM EDT, Tue September 23, 2014
Ebola could become the biggest humanitarian disaster in a generation, writes former British Prime Minister Tony Blair
updated 12:58 PM EDT, Fri September 26, 2014
ISIS has shocked the world. But will releasing videos of executions backfire? Four experts give their take.
updated 10:39 AM EDT, Fri September 26, 2014
Eric Holder kicked off his stormy tenure as attorney general with a challenge to the public that set tone for six turbulent years as top law-enforcement officer.
updated 9:09 AM EDT, Fri September 26, 2014
LZ Granderson says Obama was elected as a war-ending change agent, not a leader who would leave behind for his successor new engagement in Iraq and Syria. Is he as disappointed as the rest of us?
updated 5:10 AM EDT, Wed September 24, 2014
Gayle Lemmon says the question now is how to translate all the high-profile feminizing into real gains for women
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT