(CNN) -- The hidden costs of football were revealed as the English Premier League released figures showing that its clubs spent over $123 million on agents' fees between October 1 2011 and September 30 2012.
That's an increase from the previous year's figures where an estimated $115 million was paid out by clubs.
Premier League champions Manchester City were the biggest spenders, splashing out nearly $17 million.
Manager Roberto Mancini added significantly to his squad before the 2012-13 season with the arrivals of Jack Rodwell from Everton, Javi Garcia from Benfica and Matija Nastasic from Fiorentina.
That number is fractionally up on the previous year's figures, which saw City spend just under $15.5 million.
While cash-rich City might have been expected to be leading the table, Liverpool's second place ranking comes as something of a surprise.
The Anfield club spent around $13.8 million on agents' fees, with much of that coming from the reported $40 million it paid out for Fabio Borini and Joe Allen in August.
Relegation-threatened Queens Park Rangers spent the third highest amount.
The west London club has yet to win a single league game this season and appointed Harry Redknapp as its new manager last week after dispensing with the services of Mark Hughes.
Rangers paid around $10.9 million to agents with former boss Hughes signing a host of players including Brazil's Julio Cesar from Inter Milan, Real Madrid's Esteban Granero and Ji-Sung Park from Manchester United.
Tottenham ($10.5 million) and Chelsea ($10.3 million) are also at the top end, while Premier League newcomers Southampton spent just over $1 million.
According to the figures, Manchester United paid $5.7 million, which was down from $7.1 million the previous year.
Of the newly-promoted clubs, West Ham United leads the way, racking up figures of $7.1 million, while Reading came close to hitting the $3.5 million mark.
Arsenal ($8.8 million) and Newcastle ($5.6m) were also significant contributors.