In July 2011, torrential rainfall and flooding devastated Lagos. Floodwater turned roads into rivers, burst sewers and destroyed homes. At least 20 people were killed, hundreds displaced and the city's economy was crippled.
Nigeria's commercial capital, with its vast coastline, low-lying topography and dense population is particularly vulnerable to flooding from rising sea levels, more intense rainfall and increasing storms.
For the two thirds of Lagos's population that live in the city's slums, floods are a fact of life, just like a lack of clean running water.
When it floods, foul water containing sewage runs into slum homes, sometimes reaching waist height. Slum dwellers say they repeatedly visit health centers because of sickness after floods, spending scant money on healthcare. A huge proportion say floods deny them job opportunities or affect their livelihoods.
Lagos one of Africa's most-populous cities, is a sprawling, chaotic metropolis of close to 12 million inhabitants, which is growing rapidly.
It has a huge population and, according to city officials, accounts for 65% of Nigeria's commercial and industrial activities, yet Lagos's GDP lags behind many other more developed cities. Beset by a ballooning population, vast slums and a lack of infrastructure, authorities are taking some steps to reduce the sprawling city's vulnerability. Yet, it is often the case that the city's inhabitants have to solve their own problems.