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What's happens now that Zimmerman is charged in Trayvon Martin death?

By Beth Karas and Jessica Thrill, In Session
updated 4:36 PM EDT, Thu April 12, 2012

(CNN) -- The special prosecutor in the Trayvon Martin shooting case has announced she has filed a charge of second-degree murder against George Zimmerman.

So, what did special prosecutor Angela Corey have to do legally to get here and what will happen next?

In Session's Beth Karas and Jessica Thrill break down the steps Corey took in order to file the charges and how the case will proceed from here.

A collection of public documents in Trayvon Martin shooting

STEP 1 -- Now that Zimmerman is in custody, he has a "first appearance" before a judge

* Zimmerman had his first appearance at 1:30 p.m. Thursday.

* First appearance hearings have to happen within 24 hours of someone's arrest.

* The judge read the charges, so Zimmerman is clear about the crimes he is accused of.

* The judge addressed Zimmerman's right to counsel. Zimmerman has hired Mark O'Mara.

STEP 2 -- Zimmerman's bond

* Second-degree murder is considered a "nonbondable" offense because the maximum penalty is life in prison.

* Both sides may have already agreed on a reasonable bond.

* But if they haven't, then Zimmerman's attorney, Mark O'Mara, can ask for an "Arthur hearing" in an attempt to get bond set.

If O'Mara does ask for an "Arthur Hearing," it could happen early next week.

* At the "Arthur hearing," the burden is on the prosecutors to show that Zimmerman should not be given bond.

To meet that burden, they will have to present evidence to support no bond.

If the prosecutors fail to meet the burden, the judge will look at other factors to decide whether to set bond. Those factors include Zimmerman's ties to the community, whether he's a flight risk and whether he's a danger to the community.

* This hearing is the opportunity for the defense to see the prosecution's evidence against Zimmerman. So, we could get to hear some of the evidence that has not been disclosed.

STEP 3 -- Arraignment

* The arraignment will likely happen within two to three weeks of the arrest.

* Zimmerman may or may not appear in open court for his arraignment.

Often the defendant will waive the appearance at the actual court hearing and his attorney can enter a written plea of not guilty on his behalf.

* Zimmerman will be arraigned and must enter a plea on the charges, most likely "not guilty" (at this stage, defendants almost never plead guilty).

In fact, O'Mara has already indicated that publicly.

STEP 4 -- Defense files a motion to dismiss based on "stand your ground" law

* Zimmerman is entitled to a pretrial evidentiary hearing on whether he can use the stand your ground immunity.

* The burden at that hearing is on the defense to prove by "a preponderance of the evidence" (meaning it's more likely than not) that Zimmerman was justified in using deadly force.

In Florida, an individual can use deadly force anywhere (with no duty to retreat) as long as he/she:

-- is not engaged in an unlawful activity;

-- is being attacked in a place he/she has a right to be; and

-- reasonably believes that his/her life and safety is in danger.

* The judge decides whether Zimmerman's actions were justified and therefore entitle him to the stand your ground immunity.

If the judge finds the force was justifiable, then the charges are dismissed and Zimmerman is immune from further criminal prosecution and, possibly, civil liability.

If the judge finds the force was not justifiable, then the charges against Zimmerman move forward (see steps 5 and 6 below)

* If the judge rules Zimmerman is immune, the prosecution can appeal that decision to a higher court.

STEP 5 -- Pretrial

* Both the prosecution and defense could file a slew of pretrial motions in the case that deal with anything and everything from turning over documents and evidence to keeping certain evidence out at trial. It is too early to tell.

STEP 6 -- Trial

* Zimmerman is charged with second-degree murder.

To convict someone of second-degree murder prosecutors have to prove several things beyond a reasonable doubt.

-- First, that Trayvon Martin is dead.

-- Second, that George Zimmerman's criminal act caused Trayvon Martin's death.

-- Third, that Zimmerman knew his actions were reasonably certain to kill, that he committed the act with a depraved mind and the act itself was indifferent to human life.

NOTE: Prosecutors do not have to prove that Zimmerman intended to kill Trayvon Martin.

Zimmerman could assert self-defense at trial, but the burden is on the prosecution to prove that it wasn't self defense beyond a reasonable doubt.

The jury will have to consider the circumstances surrounding the killing and decide whether it was second-degree murder or a justifiable use of deadly force.

The jury could also look at lesser-included offenses. At some point during or after the trial, the attorneys will meet with the judge in what is called a "charging conference" to argue which legal instruction the judge will give the jurors. We will not know which lesser-included offenses will be given to the jury until then.

* It is too early to tell what lesser charges the evidence may support, but one possibility is manslaughter.

To convict someone of manslaughter, prosecutors have to prove two things beyond a reasonable doubt:

-- that Trayvon Martin is dead AND

-- that Zimmerman's acts caused Trayvon Martin's death

NOTE: Manslaughter does not require that it be an intentional killing, only that the act that caused death was intentional and not justified or excusable.

Zimmerman could assert self-defense at trial, but the burden is on the prosecution to prove that it wasn't self defense beyond a reasonable doubt.

The jury will have to consider the circumstances surrounding the killing and decide whether it was manslaughter or a justifiable use of deadly force.

NOTE: In the charging document, Corey alleges that Zimmerman killed Martin with a gun. That is important, because if the jury does convict Zimmerman of the lesser charge of manslaughter, using a gun increases the penalty that Zimmerman would face on a manslaughter conviction.

If convicted of second-degree murder, Zimmerman faces a sentence of 25 years to life in prison without parole.

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