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Unrest: Middle East and North Africa, country by country

By The CNN Wire Staff

(CNN) -- Demonstrations have spread across parts of the Middle East and North Africa. Here is the latest from each country and the roots of the unrest.

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NEW DEVELOPMENTS

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LIBYA

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-- NATO members on Sunday agreed to take over the full scope of the military mission in Libya. NATO ambassadors unanimously approved a play for a so-called "No Fly Plus" in Libya that will allow it to protect civilians as well as enforce a no-fly zone and an arms embargo.

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-- Six large explosions and tracer fire could be seen and heard in Tripoli Sunday night, according to CNN's Nic Robertson.

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-- French warplanes on Sunday led airstrikes on armored vehicles and on a large ammunitions depot in the regions of Misrata and Zintan, according to the French Ministry of Defense.

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-- Libyan rebels continued their westward advance Sunday, taking operational control of two key cities -- Ras Lanuf and al-Brega. Rebel forces told CNN that forces loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi pulled back from the city. A CNN crew in Ras Lanuf witnessed damaged vehicles on the outskirts of the town, although the town appeared to have avoided major destruction. No clashes were reported on Sunday.

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-- Some opposition fighters focused on securing al-Brega's entrance Sunday while others traveled in trucks heading west, encountering little resistance along the way.

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-- The city of Misrata remained under siege by government forces for the 11th consecutive day, an eyewitness told CNN.

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-- U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates told CBS' "Face the Nation" that he was unaware of coalition attacks causing civilian casualties.

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SYRIA

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-- Syria will lift its emergency law that has been in place for nearly 50 years, a government official said Sunday. But Reem Haddad, spokeswoman for the Syrian Information Ministry, said it was too early to say when it would be lifted. The law allows the government to make preventive arrests and override constitutional and penal code statutes, and bars detainees held without charge from filing court complaints or having a lawyer present during interrogations.

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-- Syrian President Bashar al-Assad was expected to address the nation amid reports of protesters being shot to death in recent days as they called for government reforms. Assad will speak "within the next couple of days," and likely not Sunday, according to a source close to the Syrian government.

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-- Syria's state-run news agency, SANA, citing an unidentified official source, said the attacks of "armed gangs" in Latakia over the past two days has led to the deaths of 10 security force members and civilians and two gunmen. SANA reported that 200 people, most of them security forces, were wounded by the gangs.

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-- SANA reported Sunday that the interior ministry "is asking everyone not to respond to inciting leaflets calling for rallies in the Umayyad Square," the largest and most important square in Damascus. State TV also reported that the government was warning people not to attend the Sunday rallies.

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YEMEN

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-- Fighting between Yemeni security forces and members of al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula has left people on both sides dead over the past two days, Yemeni security forces said.

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-- Three "al Qaeda terrorists were killed" and six others were arrested in Lawdar district, Yemen's official news agency Saba reported Saturday. On Sunday, seven Yemeni soldiers were killed and seven others were wounded when members of al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula attacked them in Mareb, two security officials said. The attack took place at a military checkpoint a mile north of the government complex in Mareb province, east of the capital, Sanaa.

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-- After the fighting Saturday, the Yemeni government said it was a sign that strong measures are needed to combat instability within the country. Saba reported that Governor Saleh al-Zawari of Abyan province affirmed "the importance to enhance security performance

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-- President Ali Abdullah Saleh said Sunday he will not offer any more concessions, and described the opposition as an alliance against the country's majority, according to Saba.

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PREVIOUS DEVELOPMENTS

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LIBYA

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-- The retreat of Moammar Gadhafi's forces from a key eastern city Saturday reinvigorated the opposition, which began taking the fight west toward the capital of Tripoli.

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-- Breakfast at a Tripoli hotel housing international journalists took a decidedly grim turn Saturday when a desperate Libyan woman burst into the building frantic to let the world know she had been raped and beaten by Moammar Gadhafi's militia.

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-- Libyan opposition forces claimed victory Saturday over Moammar Gadhafi's forces in a strategically located eastern city but the battle in the west raged as loyalist tanks resumed shelling Misrata.

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-- By Saturday evening, advancing opposition fighters had reached the outskirts of the city of Brega, to the west of Ajdabiya, said opposition spokesman Col. Ahmed Omar Bani.

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-- Several busloads of Gadhafi's forces, mainly rifle-carrying snipers, arrived in the besieged city of Misrata Saturday and forced residents from their homes, a witness told CNN Saturday.

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-- Gen. Carter Ham, who is overseeing U.S. military involvement in the Libyan mission, said Friday the biggest challenge in going after Gadhafi's troops and snipers is when they are in close proximity to civilians. He also said the coalition is not arming opposition forces.

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-- NATO has agreed in principle to protect Libyan civilians and will work out details this weekend, said Ham, commander of U.S. Africa Command. He also said removing Gadhafi by military means is not the aim of the mission.

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-- U.S., French and British military forces have launched an operation against Gadhafi's forces, convinced that the Libyan leader was not adhering to a United Nations-mandated cease-fire. The attacks on Libyan military positions with missiles and airstrikes are part of an operation that includes enforcement of a no-fly zone.

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-- The best way to go after Gadhafi's ground forces in populated areas is to cut off their supply lines, U.S. Navy Vice Adm. Bill Gortney said at the Pentagon Friday. That would not only affect the strength of Gadhafi's troops but also diminish their will to fight, he said.

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-- Protecting civilians in Libya will continue regardless of the command structure, but that part of the mission could also eventually fall under NATO, Gortney said Friday. "Job one is to protect the Libyan people and the job doesn't change because we have a new boss," he said, briefing reporters at the Pentagon.

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-- The coalition has reports that Gadhafi is seeking to arm volunteers to fight the opposition, U.S. Navy Vice Adm. Bill Gortney said Friday. Despite airstrikes on Gadhafi's tanks in the city of Ajdabiya, the "regime is still able and still determined to reinforce their positions there," Gortney said.

-- The Libyan delegation attending an African Union meeting in Ethiopia said Friday that Libya is committed to a cease-fire and is ready to let the African Union monitor the cease-fire. Mohammed al-Zwai, speaker of the Libyan People's Assembly, said the crisis in Libya is strictly an African problem and should be dealt with solely by the African Union.

-- The United Arab Emirates announced it will send 12 aircraft in the coming days to help patrol and enforce the United Nations-mandated no-fly zone.

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-- More than 351,000 people have left Libya since the start of the unrest, the U.N. refugee agency and the International Organization for Migration said.

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-- Dirk Niebel, Germany's minister for development aid, criticized nations implementing the U.N. resolution authorizing force in Libya. "I find it strange that countries that are still getting oil from Libya are happily bombing the place. I think before military intervention, you should exhaust all nonmilitary methods of pressure," he said.

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-- NATO agreed Thursday to take command of enforcing the no-fly zone over Libya, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Protests in Libya started in February when demonstrators, fed up with delays, broke into a housing project the government was building and occupied it. Gadhafi's government, which has ruled since a 1969 coup, responded with a $24 billion fund for housing and development. A month later, more demonstrations were sparked when police detained relatives of those killed in an alleged 1996 massacre at the Abu Salim prison, according to Human Rights Watch. High unemployment and demands for freedom have also fueled the protests.

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YEMEN

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-- Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh told an Arab television network that he is "ready to step down with respect and dignity, even within a two hours' notice."

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-- Saleh, speaking to Al Arabiya television on Saturday, warned that some leadership factions in the opposition have a "foreign agenda."

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-- There were two rival demonstrations in Yemen on Friday, one pro-government and the other anti-government. A human rights activist described the anti-government protest as huge and said a funeral prayer took place at the protest for two of the people who died last week during the violence in Sanaa.

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-- Saleh told a throng of demonstrators Friday he is ready to have a dialogue with protesters and make concessions in order to avoid bloodshed. He said he's ready to hand over authority systematically but not to "gangs," "drug dealers" or al-Houthi rebels.

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-- Germany and Britain are pulling nonessential embassy staff out of Yemen because of the rapidly deteriorating security situation, they said Thursday.

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-- Saleh has accepted opposition demands for constitutional reforms and holding parliamentary elections by the end of the year, his office said Wednesday.

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-- Saleh's statement came the same day Yemen's parliament approved a 30-day extension of emergency powers that he declared last week in response to the protests. The law expands the government's powers of arrest, detention and censorship.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Protesters have called for the ouster of Saleh, who has ruled Yemen since 1978. The country has been wracked by a Shiite Muslim uprising, a U.S.-aided crackdown on al Qaeda operatives and a looming shortage of water. High unemployment fuels much of the anger among a growing young population who have suffered from poverty. The protesters also cite government corruption and a lack of political freedom. Saleh has promised not to run for president in the next round of elections.

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SYRIA

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-- A day after violent protests erupted in the restive city of Daraa, security forces opened fire at protesters in the coastal city of Latakia, witnesses said.

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-- Anti-government demonstrations in Latakia had started peacefully before several people were wounded in a hail of gunfire as security forces tightened their control on access to the city, witnesses said.

-- Presidential spokeswoman Bouthaina Shaaban told state media that an unidentified group of gunmen opened fire at citizens and security forces.

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-- Thousands in Sanamen marched Saturday in what appeared to be a mixture of political protest and funeral procession as they sought to bury six people killed in violent clashes earlier in the week, another witness said.

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-- Presidential spokeswoman Shaaban blamed "a group of gunmen and smugglers" who allegedly seized police weapons and began shooting. Their actions compelled security guards to fire back in defense of their post, she said.

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-- Syrian state television later broadcast the apparent confessions of foreign nationals arrested in Syria, including an Egyptian with American citizenship who worked in Syria, according to the country's official news agency.

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-- Violent protests erupted Friday in Syria, with dozens of people people killed in and around the restive city of Daraa and a boy slain in the coastal town of Latakia, reports said.

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-- "The situation in Syria has worsened considerably over the past week, with the use of live ammunition and tear gas by the authorities having resulted in a total of at least 37 people being killed in Daraa, including two children," said Rupert Colville, a spokesman for the U.N.'s Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.

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-- The U.S. government condemns the outbreak of violence in Syria, White House Press Secretary Jay Carney said Friday. "We are making clear from here and from other places what our position is."

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-- Eyewitnesses said demonstrators took to the streets in Daraa on Friday. Protesters chanted for freedom and criticized the government. One activist, Kamal Aswad, said more than 100,000 demonstrators turned out. Syrian human rights activists reported smaller demonstrations in other cities, including Damascus, Deir Al-Zour, Raqqa, Latakia and Homs.

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-- The government blamed the instability in Daraa on outsiders, but it promised "no live bullets" will be used against demonstrators.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Opponents of the al-Assad government allege massive human rights abuses, and an emergency law has been in effect since 1963. Earlier in March, Syrian human rights attorney Haitham Maleh -- arrested in October 2009 during a government crackdown on lawyers and activists -- was freed, his son said. The move comes amid demands by many citizens for more economic prosperity, political freedom, and civil liberty.

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JORDAN

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-- Sixty-two citizens and 58 members of Jordanian security forces, including two senior officers, were injured during Friday's clashes in Amman, Jordan, according to the country's General Security Directorate.

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-- Officials say police tried to separate the two groups and were initially overwhelmed before they later regained control of the situation.

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-- Jordan Foreign Minister Nasser Judeh said, "Things have gotten a little out of hand." He noted that the country has "a leadership that initiates reform."

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-- Nasser tweeted on Friday that 62 demonstrators and 54 policemen were injured during Friday's demonstrations.

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-- Several demonstrators calling for reform in Jordan were injured in Amman Friday when government supporters hit them with rocks and sticks, protest organizers said.

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-- Government opponents and supporters chanted dueling slogans while police stood by, one organizer said. Many protesters advocate a constitutional monarchy and less power for the king; they also are angry about corruption and the privatization of some services, among other things.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Jordan's economy has been hit hard by the global economic downturn and rising commodity prices, and youth unemployment is high, as it is in Egypt. Officials close to the palace have told CNN that King Abdullah II is trying to turn a regional upheaval into an opportunity for reform. He swore in a new government following anti-government protests. The new government has a mandate for political reform and is headed by a former general, with opposition and media figures among its ranks.

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BAHRAIN

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-- Bahraini authorities handed over the bodies of two people killed in earlier clashes between protesters and government supporters, according to a journalist in Manama.

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-- Protesters on Friday marched in residential areas outside the capital city of Manama, where armored vehicles rumbled through the streets and jet fighters patrolled the country's airspace.

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-- Human Rights Watch urged Bahrain earlier this week to end its "campaign of arrests" of doctors and human rights activists. Six were arrested over the weekend. The government denied there is such a campaign.

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-- King Hamad said last week the kingdom had foiled a foreign plot to destabilize it, though he did not name the foreign entity.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Protesters initially took to the streets of Manama to demand reform and the introduction of a constitutional monarchy. But some are now calling for the removal of the royal family, which has led the Persian Gulf state since the 18th century. Young members of the country's Shiite Muslim majority have staged protests in recent years to complain about discrimination, unemployment and corruption, issues they say the country's Sunni rulers have done little to address. The Bahrain Center for Human Rights said authorities launched a clampdown on dissent in 2010. It accused the government of torturing some human rights activists.

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SAUDI ARABIA

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-- Security forces arrested several people demonstrating at the interior ministry Sunday. Two activists said about 100 men had gathered there to demand the release of imprisoned relatives.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Demonstrators have demanded the release of Shiite prisoners who they feel are being held without cause. Others have taken to the streets over the creation of a constitutional monarchy, more rights and other reforms. Late last month, King Abdullah announced a series of sweeping measures aimed at relieving economic hardship.

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EGYPT

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-- U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates was in Egypt on Wednesday for talks with officials and military leaders of the key U.S. ally. It was Gates' first visit to Egypt since President Hosni Mubarak was forced to step down.

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-- The visit follows a referendum last weekend in which voters overwhelmingly approved proposed constitutional amendments paving the way for parliamentary elections in June.

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-- A report published this week by Amnesty International describes the mistreatment of 17 female demonstrators at the hands of the Egyptian military after a protest March 9. The group said the women were beaten, given electric shocks, subjected to strip searches, forced to submit to "virginity checks" and threatened with prostitution charges. An army major denies allegations of torture or virginity tests but confirms 17 women were arrested.

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-- Some activists, concerned citizens and politicians are calling for a protest against a new law that Egypt's ruling military council is poised to approve. The law could make protests a criminal offense punishable by jail time and large fines.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Complaints about police corruption and abuses were among the top grievances of demonstrators who forced President Hosni Mubarak from office. Demonstrators also were angry about Mubarak's 30-year rule, a lack of free elections and economic issues, such as high food prices, low wages and high unemployment. Since Mubarak's departure, several thousand people have protested in Cairo's Tahrir Square to urge Egypt's new rulers to implement promised reforms. They pressed Egypt's Supreme Council to end an emergency law and release political prisoners, among other things. They also demanded civilian representation in government.

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TUNISIA

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-- In two short months, this country has gone from decades of strict one-party rule to an explosion of more than 30 registered political parties.

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Roots of unrest

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-- The revolt was triggered when an unemployed college graduate set himself ablaze after police confiscated his fruit cart, cutting off his source of income. Protesters complained about high unemployment, corruption, rising prices and political repression. An interim government came to power after an uprising prompted autocratic President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to leave the country January 14. Those demonstrations helped spark protests across North Africa and the Middle East.

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MOROCCO

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-- Moroccan Foreign Minister Taib Fassi Fihri held talks Thursday in New York with U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on the situation in the Arab world, particularly in the Maghreb region, the state-run MAP news agency reported.

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-- Fihri said Wednesday that proposed constitutional reforms will strengthen the separation of powers and will help a "new Morocco" emerge, MAP reported. He said the committee in charge of revising the constitution will submit its results for the king's approval in June, after which they will be put to a public vote.

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Roots of unrest

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-- Protesters are seeking, among other things, political reforms to limit the monarchy's power and have not accepted reforms proposed by King Mohammed VI that demonstrators say do not go far enough, according to Human Rights Watch. As uprisings swept the region, the king proposed the creation of an elected prime minister position to serve as the government's chief executive, promotion of human rights and gender equality and economic improvements.

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ELSEWHERE

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-- Sporadic demonstrations have erupted in recent weeks in other Middle Eastern and northern African nations, such as Algeria, Djibouti, Oman, Kuwait and Sudan and in the Palestinian territories.