(CNN Student News) -- October 1, 2010
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THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
CARL AZUZ, CNN STUDENT NEWS ANCHOR: It's the start of a new month, the start of the government's fiscal year -- we'll explain why that one's important in a second -- and of course, it is the most awesome day of the week. I'm Carl Azuz. Let's get started.
AZUZ: First up, Congress votes to keep the government running, at least for another two months. Here's the deal: The government has a budget for every fiscal, or financial year, which starts on October 1st. The budget says where different money goes and how it's spent. Congress has to pass that budget; they haven't done that yet. Without a budget, the government would shut down. So this week, Congress passed what's called a stop-gap measure. That's going to keep things running for two months.
Some people say that Congress only passed the stop-gap to avoid tough questions from voters. This is an election year and it might be hard to get re-elected if you have to explain why you voted against the budget and let the government shut down. Other folks are upset that Congress wouldn't stick around to work on the budget. After they passed the stop-gap, most Congressmen and women headed home to campaign. These budget delays aren't a new thing though. Over the last 35 years, Congress has missed the October 1st deadline more often than it's made it.
TOMEKA JONES, CNN STUDENT NEWS: Today's Shoutout goes out to Mrs. Hudgins' 8th grade World History class at Opelika Middle School in Opelika, Alabama! What is the second most populated country in the world? Is it: A) India, B) China, C) Russia or D) the United States? You've got three seconds -- GO! With more than one billion people, India is second on the list, right behind China. That's your answer and that's your Shoutout!
AZUZ: Most of that population, around 80 percent, follows the Hindu religion. There are also more than 160 million Muslims in India. And those two groups -- plus one smaller religious group -- have been fighting over a holy site in India. All three groups say it should belong to them. Yesterday, a court ruling ordered the groups to divide up the site. India's government sent out extra security forces after the decision to try and keep things calm. In the past, the fighting over this holy site has led to violence in different parts of the country. Sara Sidner explains how this fight started.
SARA SIDNER, CNN CORRESPONDENT, NEW DELHI: The legal battle over this piece of land in Ayodhya, India has spanned more than a century. The bitter dispute pits Hindus against Muslims and has sparked some of the deadliest riots the country has experienced since partition.
MUSHIRUL HASAN, DIRECTOR GENERAL OF ARCHIVES: Ayodhya has captured the imaginations of the people in and around that region for well over 150 years. For the first time after independence though, the problem surfaced in 1949 when an idol was placed in the mosque.
SIDNER: The main fight is over who is entitled to this piece of land some consider sacred. In the 1500s, a mosque was built on the site by India's then Muslim rulers. But Hindus believe long before the mosque was constructed, a temple stood to mark the birthplace of one of their most adored Hindu dieties, Lord Ram.
This Day in History
[ON SCREEN GRAPHIC]
October 1, 1908 -- Ford unveils the Model T, the first affordable car mass produced in the U.S.
October 1, 1949 -- People's Republic of China is established as a communist nation
October 1, 1958 -- NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, opens its doors
October 1, 1982 -- The first CDs, compact discs, are released to the public
Is This Legit?
MICHELLE WRIGHT, CNN STUDENT NEWS: Is this legit? Light travels at more than 180,000 miles per second. Legit! And a light-year, the distance that light can travel in one year, is around 5.8 trillion miles.
New Planet Discovered
AZUZ: Scientists say a newly discovered planet that's about 20 light years away from Earth could be the closest thing they've found out there so far to our home world. It's called Gliese 581g and this is an artist's conception of what it looks like. The red thing is a dwarf star. Gliese 581g orbits the star kinda like the Earth orbits the sun. The similarities don't stop there. Experts think this planet has enough gravity to keep an atmosphere around it. They say there's also a good chance that there's water on the planet. But, there is at least one difference and it's pretty significant. One of the scientists who discovered the planet explains.
STEVEN VOGT, UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ: This planet doesn't have days and nights. Wherever you are on this planet, the sun is in the same position, or the star is in the same position all the time. So, it keeps one side facing towards the star, and that's fairly warm. And the other side is in perpetual nighttime.
AZUZ: Sticking with the science theme, people are always looking for ways to help this planet. Well, some scientists are squealing about an idea that involves pigs. You've heard of green eggs and ham. Take out the eggs. Allan Chernoff introduces us to enviropig!
ALLAN CHERNOFF, CNN SR. CORRESPONDENT: It looks just like a pig.
PROF. RICHARD MOCCIA, UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH: It looks, sounds, acts identical to a normal Yorkshire pig.
CHERNOFF: But it is different genetically. To create this pig, scientists here added an E. coli bacteria gene and mouse DNA to a normal pig embryo. They call it an enviropig.
I mean, actually, the idea is that someone like this could end up on a dinner plate.
MOCCIA: Certainly, one of the goals of the technology is to produce a pig which could be consumed by humans and enter the food chain. We have done extensive testing, though, on the various internal organs and different meat cuts from the enviropig, looked at the nutritional content. They're identical to a normal Yorkshire pig.
LARISA RUDENKO, FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION: What I can tell the American public is that no food from a genetically-engineered animal will go on the market unless the FDA has demonstrated that it's safe.
CHERNOFF: But the original idea was not to create a bigger, tastier pig.
Why create a pig like this?
MOCCIA: To try to control and reduce the environmental footprint of pig farming around the world by reducing the amount of phosphorous that the pig produces.
CHERNOFF: Phosphorous is a nutrient that helps the pigs grow, but that they can't fully digest. So, much of it comes out in their manure. Farmers use that manure as fertilizer. When it rains, some of the manure runs off into the watershed, meaning plenty of phosphorous gets into our rivers and lakes. The enviropig's genetic additions allow it to digest more phosphorous. About 50 percent more, according to researchers. That means half as much in its manure, and that's why it's called enviropig. But the head of the Center for Food Safety, an organization promoting organic agriculture, says hog farming needs to change, not the pigs.
ANDREW KIMBRELL, CENTER FOR FOOD SAFETY: It's a completely novel cell invasion technology where we are crossing the boundaries of nature as no other generation has before.
AZUZ: Civility. A study at Rutgers University examines it. We asked on our blog how you would "bring back nice." Kaleb writes that "people are constantly thinking of themselves, so they can't think or be nice to anyone else." Jessica suggests "having a council meeting, a pep talk or some sort of rally on why it's important to be nice to others." Wesley says "students could interact with people face-to-face instead of over phones or computers. Why don't we do that," he asks. Melissa feels "we should start out by teaching kids ways to be polite. A lot of people are rude without even realizing it." Angela thinks "it could help to have courtesy classes in schools." In her opinion, politeness is decreasing drastically. On the blog, we only read comments with first names; no initials, no schools. Please stick to first names only.
Teachers' Lounge Promo
AZUZ: We've been asking for your thoughts about bullying on our blog. Teachers, we want to hear what you have to say, too. Go to CNNStudentNews.com, scroll down to the CNN Teachers' Lounge. That's where you can sound off on education issues. This week's question: What do you think schools should do about bullying?
Before We Go
AZUZ: Before we go today, we've all heard that story about the tortoise beating the hare. But now we get to see what happens when that tell-tale tortoise takes on someone its own size. Not much. What these speed demons lack in speed, they make up for in -- I don't know -- determination? Well, there is something that's sort of interesting: last year's winner lost.
AZUZ: We guess he's just a shell of his former self. See? You see? Even the pun possibilities contort us into bad jokes. You guys have a good weekend. Please join us back on Monday when we return. For CNN Student News, I'm Carl Azuz.