(CNN Student News) -- April 26, 2010
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CARL AZUZ, CNN STUDENT NEWS ANCHOR: Hi, everyone. I'm Carl Azuz. As we kick off a new week of CNN Student News, we are starting out in Arizona.
AZUZ: The state is home to a new law that some people are calling the toughest immigration bill in the country. It's expected to go into effect later this year. It only applies to Arizona. What it does is require immigrants, people who have come to the U.S. from other countries, to have their registration documents with them at all times. And it requires police officers to question people if there's a reason to suspect they might be in the U.S. illegally. In the past, officers could only check someone's immigration status if the person was suspected of another crime.
Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed the bill into law on Friday. She also signed an order that requires police officers to get training on how to do this, how to carry out this law without racial profiling. That's a big concern of some people who are against the law. One Arizona state Senator argues that the state had to do something because the federal government wasn't.
FRANK ANTENORI, (R) ARIZONA STATE SENATE: This is the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. All we need to do is follow this law and we can solve this problem. And it clearly states that if you enter this country without legal permission, you're breaking the law. And if you hire someone that is here illegally, you're breaking the law. But the federal government is not enforcing this, and now Arizona has been forced to do so for the protection of our own citizens.
AZUZ: President Obama agrees that the issue of immigration needs to be looked at. He doesn't believe Arizona's bill is the right way to do it. He's called that bill "misguided." Some other critics, including the governor of New Mexico, Arizona's neighbor, have used harsher words to describe the bill.
GOV. BILL RICHARDSON, (D) NEW MEXICO: It's a terrible piece of legislation. It's against the democratic ideals of this country. It's a step backwards. It's impractical. If I were the administration, I'd look at the legality of this bill. I believe that this bill is going to complicate a lot of issues. It's going to mean, I believe, potentially racial profiling.
AZUZ: Moving over to West Virginia, where the state's paying tribute to 29 workers who were killed in a mine explosion earlier this month. President Obama took part in yesterday's memorial service. He and Vice President Joe Biden met with the families of the victims privately before the ceremony. During that ceremony, the president gave a eulogy, talking about the sacrifice that the miners had made. The memorial showed photos of the victims as well as crosses that family members laid mining helmets on top of.
Is this Legit?
APRIL WILLIAMS, CNN STUDENT NEWS: Is this Legit? The Enhanced Fujita Scale is used to measure hurricane damage. Not legit! The Enhanced Fujita Scale, or Enhanced F-scale, measures the damage caused by tornadoes.
AZUZ: After a tornado ripped across parts of Mississippi over the weekend, it wasn't immediately given a number on the Enhanced F-scale. But the damage from it looks to be awful: roofs ripped off of houses; power lines knocked down; cars flipped over. Authorities say the storm killed at least 10 people, injured dozens of others, destroyed hundreds of homes. As of yesterday, Mississippi's governor hadn't asked the federal government for help in the recovery process. He said he'd probably do that today, though. Nearly 80 members of the Mississippi National Guard are helping out in some of the areas that were hit the hardest.
Some reports said this tornado was almost a mile wide. Think about that: a mile wide! It started on Mississippi's western border with Louisiana and then moved 150 miles east across Mississippi toward Alabama. Along the way, it trampled through entire neighborhoods. Officials were out yesterday to figure out exactly how much damage was done. The stories from some of the victims of this storm are incredible. One woman who took shelter in a hair salon said you could feel the glass and debris flying in and cutting you. Another man who was inside a church said the whole building fell down around him. Luckily, he suffered only minor scratches.
The tornado in Mississippi was part of a long line of storms that went from Missouri down to the Florida panhandle. Chad Myers gives a look at the science behind when and where these storms strike.
CHAD MYERS, CNN WEATHER ANCHOR: Yeah, Carl, let's talk tornadoes and why. I guess, why so much in the spring time. It's a clash, a clash between the warm and the cold. And in the winter time, the jet stream is all the way down in the Gulf of Mexico. So basically, everybody's cold, so there's no clash. There's no warm and cold all together. In the spring, the jet stream starts to come up a little bit, and when you get the jet stream like this, the cold air is still here, but the warm air is allowed to come out of the Gulf of Mexico.
So, why do we get so many more tornadoes in the U.S. than any place else? Because there is the Gulf of Mexico, there's the moisture source. Storms need a lot of humidity, that's what you can see when you see the storms go up. Obviously, the humidity becomes rain and hail, and then you have dry air that comes out of the mountains. But more importantly, the cold air that comes down from the north. So right there, there's your warm versus cold. And just like if you put oil and vinegar and you try to make a salad dressing, you shake it up, it looks good, but eventually, the oil goes to the top and the vinegar goes to the bottom. You can probably do that in your fridge. You can find some oil and vinegar dressing and figure that out.
So, we get a low pressure center that develops in the Plains; on the one side of that we get a warm front, on the other side it's a cold front. Should be blue but this is the only color that I have. And right here in the middle, right there in that zone is where the severe weather will be. There could be some tornadoes across the north part of it. But more than likely right along the cold front, that's were the severe weather happens.
And for all three reasons, the Gulf of Mexico, the cold air, and the mountains to the west, that's why the U.S. has more tornadoes than any place else in the world, Carl.
Oil Leak in Gulf
AZUZ: Thank you very much, Chad. Down in the Gulf of Mexico is where our next story takes place today. Rescue workers have suspended the search for 11 people who were missing after an explosion on an oil rig last week. Now, the efforts are mainly focused on the oil that's leaking out into the Gulf from parts of the rig that are underwater. One official said about a thousand barrels worth of oil -- that's about 42,000 gallons -- are leaking out every day. Dozens of ships and aircraft are working to help contain this leak, although bad weather caused some delays over the weekend.
TOMEKA JONES, CNN STUDENT NEWS: Today's Shoutout goes out to Mr. V's social studies classes at Fruit Cove Middle School in St. Johns, Florida! Where would you find the Hubble Telescope? Is it: A) On Mt. McKinley, B) In the Nevada desert, C) In Orbit or D) In the Arctic Ocean? You've got three seconds -- GO! The Hubble Telescope has been in orbit around the Earth for two decades. That's your answer and that's your Shoutout!
NASA ANNOUNCER: And liftoff of the space shuttle Discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope, our window on the universe.
AZUZ: That is how Hubble got up into orbit, hitching a ride on the space shuttle Discovery 20 years ago. It was 20 years ago this weekend, to be specific. And since then, Hubble has taken more than half a million pictures, giving us an out-of-this-world view of black holes and primordial galaxies. The thing did get off to a bit of a rocky start, though. There was a problem with one of Hubble's mirrors that made the pictures it sent back, fuzzy. A repair mission in 1993 fixed that.
Hubble is the most sophisticated telescope ever put in orbit. Over the past two decades, it's helped astronomers discover dark energy. It's helped estimate an approximate age of the universe; 13.75 billion years old, according to theory. And it's offered some ideas about how galaxies form. As one NASA official explains it, Hubble worked to turn science fiction into science fact.
ED WEILER, ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR, SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE: When Hubble was launched in 1990, super massive black holes were a fantasy, a theory, something you saw on Star Trek. And one of our goals was to prove, find at least one, and prove it exists. As it turns out, Hubble surprised us. Not only did it find one, but it basically showed us that super massive black holes are pervasive throughout the universe.
Before We Go
AZUZ: Before we go, you remember the world's tallest cat we showed you last week? He could totally beat up this guy. That's because Einstein here is only 14 inches tall! That could make him the world's smallest horse, for now. He was born at 14 inches last Friday, so, ya know, he could grow. But his owner, who's been raising horses for 20 years, says Einstein is the tiniest trotter she's ever seen.
AZUZ: It's not that big of a story, but we didn't want to overlook it. Besides, did you see that little guy running around? It was just pure, unbridled enthusiasm. We are not short-changing you today. Back with more tomorrow. I'm Carl Azuz.