(CNN Student News) -- April 14, 2010
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CARL AZUZ, CNN STUDENT NEWS ANCHOR: Lend us your ears and follow your nose. This broadcast of CNN Student News appeals to the senses. From the CNN Center, I'm Carl Azuz.
First Up: Nuclear Summit
U.S. PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: Two decades after the end of the Cold War, we face a cruel irony of history. The risk of a nuclear confrontation between nations has gone down, but the risk of nuclear attack has gone up.
AZUZ: The risk that President Obama is talking about is from terrorists. This week's Nuclear Security Summit is focused on how to prevent that risk. Dozens of world leaders working on ways to secure nuclear materials. Several ideas have come out of this summit. We reported yesterday that Ukraine plans to get rid of its enriched uranium, which can be used to make nuclear materials. The U.S. and Russia agreed to update a treaty aimed at eliminating weapons-grade plutonium from their military programs. You can see Secretary of State Clinton and her Russian counterpart signing off on the agreement. Plus, Mexico and Canada have announced plans to downgrade supplies of enriched uranium so that they can't be used to make nuclear weapons.
Tuesday's session began on a sad note: a moment of silence for the victims of a plane crash that killed the president of Poland, along with that country's first lady and many top Polish officials. President Obama has said that he'll travel to Poland for the president and first lady's funeral.
TOMEKA JONES, CNN STUDENT NEWS: See if you can I.D. Me! I was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1964. I graduated from Princeton University and got my law degree from Harvard. I have two daughters: Malia and Sasha. I'm first lady Michelle Obama, the country's first African-American first lady.
AZUZ: Right now, Michelle Obama is on her first official, solo trip as first lady. She arrived in Mexico yesterday for a three-day visit there. It's being made "in recognition of the deep ties between the United States and Mexico." While she is there, Mrs. Obama will meet with the first lady of Mexico, tour different cultural museums, and give a speech at a local university. But before that, she was in Haiti. It was a surprise stop Tuesday on her way to Mexico. She toured some of the areas that were devastated by the massive earthquake that hit the country in January. Afterward, the first lady promised that the U.S. is committed to helping Haiti recover from the disaster.
Offer of Resignation
AZUZ: In Asia, Kurmanbek Bakiev, the president of Kyrgyzstan, says that he is willing to resign, but only if he and his relatives are allowed to leave the country safely. Kyrgyzstan has been going through some political turmoil recently. And when protesters took over the main government building, Bakiev left the capital city and a temporary government took over. Some officials in that new government would be just fine with Bakiev leaving Kyrgyzstan. Others think the president should have to stay and be held accountable for what they say are criminal actions. Charges have been filed against some of his relatives and associates. But Bakiev says he doesn't recognize any decisions made by the interim government.
Rare Safety Warning
AZUZ: "Don't buy: Safety risk." It's a warning that Consumer Reports doesn't make too often. But it is making that warning about a sport utility vehicle made by Lexus. The Lexus GX460, you see right here, during a severe turn, it slides almost completely sideways. Consumer Reports says that's because a system that should stop the slide doesn't kick in in time, and that could cause a rollover. That's why the magazine issued the rare "Don't buy" warning. The last one of those was given out, in 2001. Toyota, which owns Lexus, said it'll conduct its own tests to see what steps need to be taken.
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April 14, 1828 - Noah Webster publishes the first edition of his dictionary.
April 14, 1865 - President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth.
April 14, 1910 - President William Taft throws out the first pitch at a Washington Senators baseball game, starting the tradition of presidents throwing out first pitches.
MATT CHERRY, CNN STUDENT NEWS: Time for the Shoutout! The word "olfactory" refers to what sense? If you think you know it, shout it out! Is it: A) Touch, B) Smell, C) Taste or D) Sight? You've got three seconds -- GO! You might have sniffed out that olfactory refers to your sense of smell. That's your answer and that's your Shoutout!
AZUZ: It comes in handy with flowers or food. But experts say our sense of smell can also work like a warning system. Kind of an olfactory alarm. That's also why dogs are sometimes used to sniff out danger. Their sense of smell can be a thousand times more sensitive than ours. And as Jeanne Meserve explains, what their nose knows could help save lives.
JEANNE MESERVE, CNN HOMELAND SECURITY CORRESPONDENT: A dog's nose samples the air many times a second. This dog sniffs it for explosives. Zeta is what's called a "vapor wake" dog, trained to pick up the scent of explosives in the air despite crowds, cross currents and other smells in Washington, D.C.'s Union Station. Her nose can ferret out TATP, TNT and other explosives in a huge space, even though a person carrying them may have passed by as much as 15 minutes earlier. The head of Amtrak's K-9 program compares these animals to a top athlete.
CAPTAIN WILLIAM PARKER, AMTRAK POLICE K-9 PROGRAM: Michael Jordan, and the reason why I say that is because Michael Jordan is one of the best basketball players of all time, and these vapor wake dogs, I put in that same category.
MESERVE: Only 1 or 2 percent of puppies from Auburn University's breeding program have what it takes to be a vapor wake dog.
JEANNE BROCK, MANAGER, AUBURN UNIVERSITY PUPPY PROGRAM: They'll hunt and hunt and hunt and won't come back without it.
MESERVE: They are introduced at an early age to slippery surfaces and a variety of environments before being sent to prisons in Georgia, Florida and Mississippi, where inmates begin training the dogs to use their noses. Back at the Auburn facility, older dogs are conditioned on a souped-up golf cart to handle the rigors of their future jobs. They recognize about a dozen explosives and could be trained to find additional ones in just a day or two. I take a backpack containing explosives into a building to test a dog. I walk, sit and walk some more.
So now, I'm going to hide this backpack full of smokeless powder right here.
A minute later, Ranger, still in the early stages of training, tracks the explosive scent right to the source.
DR. ROB GILLETTE, AUBURN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE: There are certain chefs who'll smell a pot of stew and say, "Oh, that's oregano, or that's this type of spice." The dog walks into it, smells this whole thing and says, "Oh, that's C-4."
MESERVE: The U.S. Capitol Police are just starting to use vapor wake dogs. They've already augmented security at sporting events and other large gatherings. But Amtrak has embraced them despite the $20,000 price tag per dog. The rail carrier believes that in a high-risk, ever-changing transit environment, the dogs have advantages over machines, even though they can only work for about 90 minutes at a stretch.
JOHN PEARCE, AUBURN UNIVERSITY CANINE DETECTION INSTITUTE: There's nothing like a dog as far as mobility, as far as how quickly it can detect explosives and take us to the source of it. And the cost is basically less than any type of technology out there.
AZUZ: Kelly is a student who's talking to us on our blog about college. We asked what those of you who are planning to go to college hope to get out of it, and Kelly asked, "How would you like to be operated on by an uneducated doctor or taught by a teacher who didn't go to college? We need to go to get higher education, jobs and to help others." Erik says he wants to go to college so he can get a job more easily and that it could help him make more money. He's right! So is Cindy. She says "college is a place where we learn about what we want to be. I'm not saying it's the only way, but it's one way to get a career in life." Cheyenne writes, "I don't just want to go to make sure I get a job right out of college. I would go because I want a higher education." What would you want out of college? Tell us, using only your first name -- your first name is all we want to see -- at CNNStudentNews.com.
Before We Go
AZUZ: Before we go, we want you to check out the ultimate garden guardian. It's 15 feet tall. 3,500 pounds. The world's tallest garden gnome! Okay, actually, it's the second tallest. It was designed to be the biggest, but then about a month before it debuted, an 18-footer showed up in Poland. Bummer. But wait, all is not lost. The other one is made out of fiberglass. So, say hello to the world's tallest concrete garden gnome! Might not be a record.
AZUZ: But the thing is still phe-gnome-inaly impressive. Just your garden-variety pun, but it'll do. For CNN Student News, I'm Carl Azuz.