Asked by Beth, Georgia
How many, if any, cases of nervous system disorders have been reported because of A-C breast cancer chemotherapy? I'm 45 and had treatment at 39 and 40. I now experience a very exaggerated amount of shaking of the hands.
Dr. Otis Brawley
Chief Medical Officer,
American Cancer Society
Dear Beth, I am assuming you have received adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is common in treatment of some stages of colon cancer and in some breast cancers. Adjuvant chemotherapy involves giving anti-cancer drugs to patients who have had surgery to remove the cancer and have no clinical evidence of disease remaining, but are at some risk of having undiagnosed microscopic cancer still present. This cancer can grow and spread. The chemotherapy is given to kill remaining microscopic illness.
The physician uses tumor size and other measures to determine those who should get chemotherapy after surgery versus those who should be watched. In breast cancer, stage of disease, age of the patient and some molecular markers are also used to predict those who are at greatest risk of relapse and most likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. In this cost-benefit analysis, risk of recurrence must be balanced against the side effects of chemotherapy. The concerns of the patient clearly must also be considered.
Drugs commonly used in adjuvant breast cancer therapy are the chemotherapy drugs: the anthracyclines, doxorubicin (Adriamycin) or epirubicin (Ellence); the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan); the taxane paclitaxel (Taxol); and cisplatin (Platinol).
Other anti-cancer drugs include the growth factor inhibitor trastuzumab (Herceptin), the estrogen blocker tamoxifen, and the aromatase inhibitors exemestane (Aromasin), anastrozole (Arimidex), and letrozole (Femara) are also commonly given as adjuvant therapies. These are the most common drugs but not the only drugs used. The drugs used depend on the presence of certain cancer markers measured by a pathologist as well as the experience of the physician. Some doctors prefer one regimen to another.
All drugs, and especially anti-cancer drugs, have the potential for side effects. The chemotherapies above are very commonly associated with lowering of the white count and risk of infection during the period of administration. A-C or Adriamycin and Cytoxan is a very common regimen and is not itself linked to shakiness or nervousness. Cognitive dysfunction or impaired memory and decreased ability to concentrate are a frequent complaint of some women getting A-C and a number of breast cancer adjuvant therapies.
The Adriamycin (and the other anthracyclines) can rarely cause an irregular heart beat and even more rarely can lead to a weakening of the heart known as cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. Cyclophosphamide has been associated with some bladder irritation at the time of administration and there is a long-term, slight increased risk of bladder cancer. There is also very small increased long-term risk of leukemia among those treated with Adriamycin or cyclophosphamide.
This drug combination often causes ovarian failure in premenopausal women. This leads to menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, mood swings and depression.
I should note that a review of known side effects of the other common breast cancer drugs does not show shaking as a reported problem although some are associated with neuromuscular problems.
Common long-term side effects of the taxanes are muscle ache and joint "arthritic-like" pain. Cisplatin (Platinol) can cause pain and numbness in the arms and legs and hearing loss. Traztuzumab is associated with muscle pain and numbness and rarely heart failure. Tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors cause anti-estrogen like reactions. They, too, can worsen menopause-like symptoms, cause mood changes, flushing and hot flashes.
Coming next week: More on why your hands might be shaking
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