(This Old House) -- A major component in fire-safe home rebuilding is "defensible space" -- a specially planned and designed area around your home that provides maneuvering space for firefighters, serves as a barrier to impede raging wildfires from getting to your doorstep, and prevents house fires from spreading to the wild.
Zones 1 and 2, the area immediately surrounding structures on your property, should be well irrigated.
In contrast to the traditionally lush American yard, a defensible space uses the judicious selection and placement of plantings as a strategy to decrease the spread of fires.
Since many homeowners neglect to incorporate defensible space into their landscaping -- fire-safe designs have a reputation of diminishing curb appeal -- California has initiated the "Why 100 feet?" campaign, complete with billboards lining the interstate.
Effective January 2005, a 100-foot defensible space around homes, following a two-zone model, was required by California state law. Watch how one homeowner got arrested for trying to save his home »
Defensible space doesn't have to be unsightly, though. In fact, a working knowledge of how defensible space can save your home, as well as an understanding of the right plants to use, may sway even the most fastidious of gardeners.
While California only requires a mandatory 100-foot defensible space in two zones, models can include up to four zones.
Zone 1 -- the area closest to your home and any other structure on your property, like garages and guest houses -- is the immediate perimeter, extending 30 feet out from the edge of the structure.
Applying defensible design in this space, along with clear street signs and house numbers, will make it easy for fire-safety workers to get to you in an emergency.
Zone 2 extends 70 feet past the end of Zone 1, completing the mandated defensible space area for California residents.
However, if your property line lies beyond the 100-foot defensible space, you should also maintain any forested areas in Zones 3 and 4 of your property by trimming trees to keep them clear of each other and removing litter.
Defensible design principles
A common misconception is that defensible landscape design calls for the stripping of visually appealing trees and plants, leaving a barren wasteland of a yard.
Instead, you'll want to pay attention to the following:
Reduction of plant fuels
The excess and/or dead plants surrounding your home act as fuels when fire strikes. Remove them from your defensible space, replacing more flammable varieties with fire-resistant ones recommended by your local nursery.
Use native plants in your defensible space
"Native species -- a good southwestern Colorado example is buffalo grass -- are fire-adapted, which means that their tops may burn off in a fire, but the roots develop to such an extent that they are the first to regenerate after a fire," says Jeff Burns, a forester with the Colorado State Forest Service's Alamosa District.
These plants offer the fire-wise trait of being easy to maintain, and strong root systems will reduce property damage from erosion. The fire-adaptive traits of native plants ensure the preservation of native species and allow for a landscape that is more likely to survive exposure to extreme heat.
Trees and shrubs
Trees and shrubs can be used in all defensible space zones, including Zone 1, provided they are a safe distance from other plants and any structures (more on that below). The trees you select for your landscape should be low in resin and sap content, with no rough bark. Consider replacing shrubs with a less flammable groundcover.
Consider the litter
Try to select plants that shed minimal amounts of needles, leaves, and other waste. Any area where the ground is thickly covered with pine needles is at high risk, since the presence of very aromatic, dry litter increases flammability in fire-prone locations. This Old House: Stop a fire before it starts
Visit a local nursery and talk to a grower about which plants will work for your defensible space. You can also call your local fire authority or contact a Firewise Community/USA representative.
Incorporate fuel breaks
Incorporate fuel breaks like gravel and stone into your landscape. In the first 3 to 5 feet of Zone 1, replace all of the plants closest to the perimeter of your home with a bed of gravel. Replace mulch with flame-resistant landscaping materials by weaving gravel and stone pathways into your design.
The use of these accents will provide visitors with safe passage to view your living collection and impede approaching flame in the event of a wildfire. This Old House: Laying a gravel path
Size and placement of plants
Now that you've picked flame-resistant plant varieties for your defensible space, you should follow a few guidelines when planting them.
Break up continuity of growth and eliminate ladder fuels. Depending on the slope of your land, trees and plant clusters should be vertically and horizontally clear of one another, since groupings of short and tall plants create an opportunity for easy flame transfer.
Make sure trees are trimmed clear 6 to 10 feet off the ground. Keep in mind that fire travels faster up slopes, so the space between plants must be greater than it would be on level ground.
For example, a 0 to 20 percent slope requires 10 feet of distance between tree crowns, while a 20 to 40 percent slope requires a 20-foot clearance between tree crowns. Depending on the slope of your property, you may need to clear tree branches 20 to 40 feet from the ground. It's essential to determine the slope of your property before planning your design. This Old House: Fire-resistant decking and framing
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