No pope chosen in first vote
Cardinals send up black smoke signal
Black smoke rises Monday evening from chimney at Sistine Chapel, indicating no pope was chosen.
An in-depth look at at the tradition of the conclave.
Roman Catholics express optimism about the future pope.
A look at the Catholic leaders who will choose the next pope.
VATICAN CITY (CNN) -- Black smoke exited a chimney atop the Sistine Chapel on Monday, indicating a vote was taken and a pope was not selected.
Roman Catholic cardinals from six continents locked themselves inside the Vatican's Sistine Chapel to begin a historic conclave to select a successor to Pope John Paul II.
The 115 cardinals from 52 countries entered the chapel in a solemn procession that was broadcast live around the world.
They walked from the Hall of Blessings into the chapel as "The Litany of Saints" was sung. Once the cardinals were inside, the invocation of the Holy Spirit, "Veni, Creator Spiritus," was sung.
The cardinals -- clad in crimson robes, shoulder capes and hats -- each took an oath of secrecy, vowing not to disclose the discussions that take place in the conclave.
They will emerge from the conclave only when they have chosen the first new pontiff of the third Christian millennium and the 264th successor to St. Peter.
If the conclave resembles previous ones, the cardinals will need several days and repeated votes to reach a majority. (Selection process)
Earlier Monday, the cardinals held a special Mass in St. Peter's Basilica to pray for God's guidance.
The first clues to the process of finding a successor were sought during the homily or sermon delivered at the public Mass.
It was read by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger of Germany, a man who has been described as a frontrunner to become the next pope.
"Having a clear faith, based on the creed of the church, is often labeled today as a fundamentalism," Ratzinger said during the homily.
"Whereas relativism, which is letting oneself be tossed and 'swept along by every wind of teaching,' looks like the only attitude acceptable to today's standards," he continued. "We are moving toward a dictatorship of relativism which does not recognize anything as for certain and which has as its highest goal one's own ego and one's own desires."
John Allen, CNN's Vatican analyst, said Ratzinger delivered a "very blunt" message for the church to "stay true to itself."
That was a strong indication that Ratzinger, 78, wants a "traditionalist" elected the next pope, Allen said.
After the Mass, the cardinals broke for lunch and rest. They began leaving the Hall of Blessings at 4:30 p.m. (1430 GMT/1030 EDT) and walked in a procession to the Sistine Chapel.
John Paul II put his own stamp on the centuries-old process before his death April 2 at age 84. John Paul appointed all but three of the 115 cardinals who will choose his successor.
Although a media blackout has been in place for more than a week, a number of cardinals have made it clear that there is no obvious heir apparent. (Potential successors)
"I think the race remains wide open," Allen said, calling this the first conclave in which Italians have not been in control in at least the early stages.
It's unlikely John Paul II made known any preference for a successor, said Chester Gillis, chairman of the department of theology at Georgetown University.
"I just don't think it would have been in character for him to give the nod to someone," he said.
A Mass celebrated Saturday was the last held during the nine days of mourning that started with John Paul's funeral April 8. (Full story)
The cardinals moved Sunday afternoon into the Domus Sanctae Marthae, on Vatican grounds, where they will be housed throughout the conclave, Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro-Valls said Saturday.
The cardinals have been meeting since the pope's death, but the business of choosing a successor has not begun, Navarro-Valls said.
"No name was proposed, or spoken of, or even suggested," he said.
Once in the Sistine Chapel, each cardinal swore an oath, of which secrecy is just one part. The cardinals will swore to observe the changes to the process that John Paul put in place in 1996 and to faithfully carry out the duties of the office.
Some Vatican watchers predicted that the process would be completed within a few days.
"If I were a betting man, which I'm not, I'm guessing by this April 21st, we'll have a new pope elected," the Rev. David O'Connell, president of the Catholic University of America, told CNN on Sunday.
John-Peter Pham, a former Vatican diplomat, noted that none of the past three papal elections took more than eight days and that some of John Paul's changes were intended to prevent an impasse. If no one has the required two-thirds majority after about 34 ballots, a simple majority will suffice.
"I couldn't anticipate a scenario where this would go much longer than a week," Pham said.
Ideally, a pope would be selected in three or four days, Allen said. Less than that could give the impression of a rush to judgment, and any longer could leave the impression the cardinals were divided, he said.
The longest interregnum occurred in the 13th century, lasting two years and nine months.
The balloting itself is elaborately choreographed. Each cardinal is given a piece of paper on which the words, in Latin, are inscribed: "I elect as supreme pontiff ... "
After noting their choices in handwriting they are are encouraged to disguise, each cardinal approaches a table in the Sistine Chapel in order of seniority, picks up a silver plate and places the ballot on top. He then puts the plate into an urn.
Three cardinals count each ballot, and another three check the counting to ensure its accuracy.
On Tuesday, a Mass will be held in the hotel at 7:30 a.m., and the cardinals will assemble in the chapel by 9 a.m. Two votes will take place in the morning and two more in the afternoon, beginning at 4 p.m.
After the votes, the ballots are burned in a stove, with the color of smoke from the chapel's chimney announcing to observers outside whether a pope has been elected.
In another change decreed by John Paul to avoid a repeat of the confusion that occurred at his election in 1978, when the smoke appeared gray, bells will also be rung to announce an election.
'Who can command respect?'
Should a voting bloc emerge, Italian cardinals could lead a push to return the papacy to an Italian, O'Connell said. John Paul was Polish -- and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years.
But O'Connell added that country of origin could prove less important than other factors.
John Paul was a youthful and vigorous 58 in 1978, when he was made pope, but "the feeling that is emerging" is that the cardinals might prefer someone "a bit more seasoned," O'Connell said.
Also high on the list of requirements for any candidate is likely to be an ability to speak multiple languages, travel and reach out to a global audience, O'Connell added.
The ability to respond to issues critical to the developing world could also prove key, O'Connell said. The number of Catholics and clergy is growing in Africa, South Asia and Latin America, even as their numbers have remained stagnant or dropped in Europe and the United States.
"Their focus is going to be: Who can lead this global church in the 21st century? Who can command respect, provide the vision and the sense of hope?" he said.
Bookmakers have given high marks to Cardinal Ratzinger, Pham said.
But, he added, Ratzinger's role could prove to be less as candidate than as a "kingmaker," Pham said.
Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop of Milan, the largest archdiocese in Europe, is also considered a contender, Pham said. Cardinal Angelo Scola of Venice is also considered a strong candidate, he said.
Allen said he felt comfortable excluding a number of candidates.
"I'm pretty sure the next pope is not going to be an American," he said. "The Vatican takes its diplomatic independence far too seriously to elect a pope from the world's lone superpower."